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Table 2 Crude and adjusted associations between built environmental variables and total moderate to vigorous physical activity (average daily minutes of 10-min bouts/day based on accelerometry) (N = 3379)

From: Built environment and physical activity: domain- and activity-specific associations among Brazilian adolescents

Variables Crude analyses Adjusted analyses**
β 95%CI p# β 95%CI p#
Population density¥ 1.6 0.1; 3.2 0.034 1.3 −0.4; 2.9 0.135*
Population between 16 and 20 years density¥ 3.0 1.5; 4.5 <0.001 1.5 −0.1; 3.1 0.060*
Average family income per capita¥ −3.6 −5.1; −2.1 <0.001 −1.8 −3.4; −0.1 0.040*
Connectivity between four or more streets¥ 0.3 −1.2; 1.9 0.669 0.8 −0.6; 2.2 0.254
Street lighting proportion¥ 0.6 −0.9; 2.2 0.397 2.2 0.5; 3.9 0.013*
Paved streets proportion¥ −2.3 −3.8; −0.8 0.003 −2.1 −3.6; −0.7 0.004*
Sidewalks proportion¥ 0.2 −1.3; 1.7 0.795 0.2 --1.2; 1.6 0.749
Trees existence proportion¥ 0.4 −1.1; 1.9 0.607 0.6 −0.8; 2.0 0.424
Open sewage proportion¥ 2.1 0.6; 3.7 0.006 0.4 −1.0; 1.9 0.546
Spread garbage proportion¥ 1.5 −0.1; 3.0 0.059 0.9 −0.6; 2.3 0.234
Public open spaces −0.7 −1.2; −0.2 0.008 −0.5 −1.0; 0.0 0.053*
Public open spaces with at least on physical activity attribute −0.4 −1.1; 0.4 0.320 −0.4 −1.1; 0.2 0.190
Public open spaces with at least on physical activity attribute of regular quality −0.9 −1.8; −0.1 0.036 −0.6 −1.4; 0.2 0.133
Public open spaces with at least on good physical activity attribute −1.1 −2.2; 0.0 0.056 −0.7 −1.7; 0.4 0.191
Walking paths/trails −1.0 −1.8; −0.1 0.026 −0.6 −1.3; 0.2 0.170
Football pitches 0.7 0.0; 1.4 0.058 0.0 −0.6; 0.7 0.968
Cycle paths/lanes −3.2 −5.9; 0.6 0.017 −1.1 −3.6; 1.3 0.374
Gym −0.7 −1.1; −0.3 0.001 −0.2 −0.7; 0.1 0.185
Beachfront 2.3 −11.4; 15.9 0.745 1.33 −11.3; 14.0 0.836
Total attributes to physical activity practice −0.4 −0.7; −0.1 0.005 −0.2 −0.5; 0.1 0.142
Lower distance for any physical activity attribute¥ 0.3 −1.2; 1.9 0.669 −0.8 −0.6; 2.2 0.254
  1. ¥Standardized variables (transformed into Z-scores)
  2. #Wald test, Multiple Linear Regression
  3. **Adjusted for sex, time living at that address and socioeconomic status
  4. *Additional adjustment – Adjusted for sex, time living at that address and socioeconomic status and other environmental variables associated (p < 0.05) in the first adjusted model