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Table 1 Characteristics of Included Studies, by Year of Publication – Case-Control Studies (N = 6)

From: Age at first birth and risk of later-life cardiovascular disease: a systematic review of the literature, its limitation, and recommendations for future research

First author, publication year Years of study Location of study Exclusion criteria Cases Controls Age Endpoint categorya Specific endpoint
1984 [23]
1960–1974 Rochester, Minnesota, USA Unmarried women. 169, hospital admissions 338 age-matched (3y), seen at same clinic in same year as diagnosis for matched case, no prior CVD diagnosis < 60 C    Incident cases of CHD (angina, myocardial infarction, sudden unexpected death)
La Vecchia
1987 [31]
1983–1986 Northern Italy Women with recurrent infarction or uncertain diagnostic criteria. 202, hospital admissions 374, under age 55 admitted to same hospital with acute disease other than CVD, malignant, metabolic, hormonal or gynecologic (and not related to smoking/alcohol) < 55 y, median age 47 (cases) 45 (controls: 24–54) C    First time myocardial infarction
1989 [37]
1973–1975 Pennsylvania, USA Never married, no living relatives, prior history of CVD 67 cases (death records in one county) 73 neighborhood controls, alive, within 10 years age match, Caucasian. 25–64, mean age 54.6 (cases) 43.4 (controls) M    Sudden cardiac death
1992 [34]
1986–1990 Massachusetts, USA Controls: people without phone-listing excluded (27%). 858, hospital admissions 858 controls from registry, 5 years age range, same precinct of residence. 45–69, mean age 60 E    First time, non-fatal myocardial infarction
2001 [33]
1992–1997 Nagoya, Japan Aged ≥80 or <30 124 consecutive cases 248 age-matched (2 y) controls, one hospital (patients with gastro-intestinal disease) and one community control per case. 30–79, mean age 60 (cases) and 60.3 (controls) C    First time subarachnoid hemorrhage
2007 [24]
3 studies: 1983–1992 1988–1989 1995–2003 Italy None mentioned 609, in hospital 1106 (in hospital for acute diseases unrelated to smoking and other recognized myocardial infarction risk factors) 18–79, median age 56 y (cases) 53 y (controls) E    First time myocardial infarction
  1. aThis column provides an overview of study endpoint category (coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease (CVA), cardiovascular disease (CVD)) and whether it concerns events (E), mortality (M) or a combination (C) of events and mortality