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Table 3 Factors associated with self-reported cereal food consumption (bread and alternatives, rice, pasta, breakfast cereal, wholegrain versions) on day prior to survey, Western Australian Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series (NMSS)

From: Consumer attitudes and misperceptions associated with trends in self-reported cereal foods consumption: cross-sectional study of Western Australian adults, 1995 to 2012

Consumed on the day prior Bread and alternatives (n = 7040) Rice (n = 6629) Pasta (n = 6654) Breakfast cereal (n = 7009) Whole-grain versions (n = 6178)
OR [95% CI] OR [95% CI] OR [95% CI] OR [95% CI] OR [95% CI]
Year of survey
 1995 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 1998 0.86 [0.64,1.16] 0.90 [0.70,1.17] 1.22 [0.95,1.56] 0.77 [0.64,0.94]a 0.81 [0.66,0.99]a
 2001 0.61 [0.46,0.81]c 0.90 [0.69,1.17] 1.41 [1.10,1.81]b 0.82 [0.67,1.01] 0.44 [0.35,0.54]c
 2004 0.46 [0.35,0.60]c 1.01 [0.85,1.43] 1.20 [0.93,1.55] 0.86 [0.71,1.06] 0.69 [0.56,0.86]c
 2009 0.42 [0.32,0.54]c 1.27 [0.97,1.65] 1.02 [0.79,1.32] 0.79 [0.65,0.97]a 1.27 [1.02,1.58]a
 2012 0.31 [0.24,0.40]c 1.17 [0.90,1.52] 0.99 [0.76,1.27] 0.72 [0.58,0.90]b 1.14 [0.91,1.41]
Sex
 Female 1.00    1.00  
 Male 1.44 [1.23,1.68]c    1.18 [1.04,1.34]a  
Age (years)
 18–24   1.00   1.00 1.00
 25–34   0.95 [0.70,1.30]   1.02 [0.80,1.30] 1.03 [0.79,1.35]
 35–44   0.81 [0.61,1.09]   0.97 [0.77,1.23] 1.05 [0.82,1.36]
 45–54   0.85 [0.62,1.15]   1.13 [0.89,1.45] 1.32 [1.01,1.72]a
 55–64   0.60 [0.43,0.84]c   1.59 [1.23,2.05]c 1.74 [1.33,2.28]c
Education
 Less than high school   1.00   1.00 1.00
 High school   1.27 [1.00,1.61]a   1.30 [1.09,1.55]b 1.19 [0.97,1.45]
 TAFE/Certificate/Diploma   1.07 [0.83,1.36]   1.35 [1.13,1.62]c 1.23 [1.01,1.50]a
 University Degree   1.56 [1.27,1.92]c   1.39 [1.19,1.63]c 1.67 [1.41,1.98]c
Currently in paid employment
 No     1.00  
 Yes     0.84 [0.73,0.97]a  
Country of birth
 Australia   1.00 1.00 1.00  
 UK/Ireland   1.00 [0.81,1.23] 0.74 [0.60,0.92]b 1.10 [0.94,1.29]  
 Other countries   2.90 [2.37,3.56]c 0.91 [0.73,1.14] 0.77 [0.65,0.92]b  
Residential area
 Metropolitan   1.00    
 Rest of the state   0.83 [0.70,0.99]a    
BMI category
 Normal weight or under   1.00 1.00   
 Overweight   1.01 [0.84,1.21] 0.81 [0.68,0.98]a   
 Obese   0.71 [0.57,0.87]c 0.78 [0.63,0.96]a   
Level of attention paid to health aspect of diet
 Pay a lot of attention     1.00 1.00
 Take a bit of notice     0.79 [0.70,0.90]c 0.54 [0.47,0.61]c
 Don’t think about     0.38 [0.29,0.49]c 0.33 [0.25,0.45]c
  1. Results are odds ratio (OR) from binary logistic regressions. a p < .05; b p < .01; c p < .001. Full models include the following variables: survey years, age group, sex, education level, household income, employment status, country of birth, residential area, BMI categories, and how they felt about health aspect of their diet. Variables with p value < .05 were retained in the final models and reported in the table with the exception of survey year which remained in final models regardless its significant level