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Table 2 Cereal foods consumed by Western Australian adults, Western Australian Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series (NMSS)

From: Consumer attitudes and misperceptions associated with trends in self-reported cereal foods consumption: cross-sectional study of Western Australian adults, 1995 to 2012

  1995 % [CI] 1998 % [CI] 2001 % [CI] 2004 % [CI] 2009 % [CI] 2012 % [CI] p valueb
Proportion consuming
 Bread (n = 7040) 88.4 [86.1,90.3] 87.2 [84.7,89.4] 82.9 [80.2,85.3] 78.5 [75.6,81.2] 75.9 [72.8,78.7] 70.4 [67.4,73.2] <.001
 Breakfast cereal (n = 7043) 51.9 [48.4,55.3] 46.7 [43.4,50.0] 48 [44.6,51.4] 50.5 [47.1,53.9] 50.6 [47.3,53.9] 51.2 [48.0,54.3] .36
 Rice (n = 7037) 22.7 [19.8,25.8] 21.3 [18.7,24.2] 22.0 [19.3,24.9] 25.2 [22.3,28.4] 27.5 [24.5,30.7] 25.7 [23.1,28.6] .02
 Bread substitute (n = 7042) 21.6 [18.9,24.5] 21.1 [18.5,23.8] 20.4 [17.9,23.1] 24.1 [21.4,27.1] 21.7 [19.2,24.5] 21.7 [19.1,24.5] .64
 Pasta (n = 7038) 19 [16.5,21.7] 22.5 [19.9,25.5] 25.2 [22.3,28.3] 22.1 [19.4,25.1] 20.3 [17.8,23.0] 19.1 [16.7,21.8] .03
Main type of bread (consumers only, n = 5589) <.001
 White 42.4 [38.8,46.1] 46.9 [43.3,50.4] 58 [54.4,61.5] 47.9 [44.1,51.7] 30.3 [27.0,33.9] 31.5 [28.1,35.1]  
 Brown or wholemeal 28.9 [25.7,32.3] 23.4 [20.7,26.4] 15.7 [13.4,18.3] 22.9 [19.9,26.2] 26.4 [23.3,29.8] 24.2 [21.1,27.6]  
 Multigrain or whole-grain 17.1 [14.5,20.0] 18.6 [16.1,21.4] 11.9 [9.8,14.4] 19.3 [16.5,22.4] 36.7 [33.1,40.4] 35.1 [31.6,38.8]  
 White with extra fibre 8.8 [7.0,11.1] 8.7 [6.9,10.9] 8.4 [6.6,10.7] 5.6 [4.0,7.8] 2.7 [1.8,3.9] 6.0 [4.6,7.8]  
 Other 2.8 [1.9,4.2] 2.4 [1.6,3.6] 6.1 [4.6,8.0] 4.3 [3.1,6.2] 3.9 [2.8,5.5] 3.2 [2.2,4.7]  
Type of rice consumed (consumers only, n = 1511) .46
 White 87.5 [82.2,91.4] 87.3 [82.0,91.2] 85.7 [79.4,90.4] 88.2 [82.6,92.2] 89.9 [86.0,92.8] 85.3 [80.5,89.1]  
 Brown 12.5 [8.6,17.8] 11.5 [7.7,16.7] 11.7 [7.5,17.7] 10.5 [6.7,15.9] 8.3 [5.7,12.0] 13.2 [9.6,17.8]  
 Both 0 1.2 [0.4,3.8] 2.6 [1.0,6.4] 1.3 [0.4,4.3] 1.8 [0.9,3.8] 1.5 [0.7,3.4]  
Type of pasta consumed (consumers only, n = 1382) .48
 Regular 91.9 [86.8,95.2] 91.7 [87.0,94.8] 95.3 [91.8,97.4] 96.5 [92.2,98.5] 92.7 [88.0,95.6] 90.7 [86.3,93.8]  
 Wholemeal 6.5 [3.7,11.2] 7.3 [4.4,11.9] 3.2 [1.6,6.4] 3.3 [1.3,7.7] 6.4 [3.6,10.9] 7.8 [4.9,12.1]  
 Both 1.6 [0.4,5.7] 1 [0.2,3.8] 1.4 [0.5,4.0] 0.2 [0.0,1.5] 1 [0.2,4.0] 1.5 [0.6,3.6]  
Proportion consuming whole-grain cereals (brown bread, wholemeal bread, multigrain bread, whole-grain bread, brown rice, wholemeal pasta, n = 7044)
 No whole-grain cereals 51.1 [47.6,54.5] 54.6 [51.3,57.9] 65.6 [62.3,68.6] 53.0 [49.6,56.3] 38.2 [35.0,41.6] 37.2 [44.6,47.5] <.001
 Any whole-grain cereals 42.5 [39.1,45.9] 39.0 [35.8,42.2] 25.6 [22.8,28.5] 34.4 [31.3, 37.6] 49.9 [42.6, 48.9] 45.7 [42.6, 48.9]  
 Missing data 6.4 [5.8,8.2] 6.4 [4.9,8.3] 8.9 [7.1,11.0] 12.7 [10.6,15.0] 11.9 [10.0,14.0] 17.1 [14.8,19.6]  
Amount consumed (among consumers) a
 Bread (slices), n = 5590 4.1 [3.7,4.4] 4.1 [4,4.3] 3.2 [3,3.4] 3.1 [3,3.2] 3.5 [2.1,4.8] 2.4 [2.3,2.5] <.001
 Bread substitute (serve), n = 1600 2.4 [2.0,2.7] 2.7 [2.2,3.2] 3.2 [2.7,3.6] 3.6 [2.9,4.3] 3.7 [2.9,4.5] 3.6 [3.0,4.3] <.001
 Rice (cups), n = 1768 1.5 [1.3,1.6] 1.4 [1.3,1.5] 1.4 [1.3,1.5] 1.3 [1.2,1.5] 1.1 [1.0,1.2] 1.1 [1.0,1.2] <.001
 Pasta (cups), n = 1439 1.5 [1.4,1.7] 1.5 [1.4,1.7] 1.8 [1.6,2.0] 1.4 [1.3,1.6] 1.3 [1.2,1.4] 1.3 [1.2,1.4] <.001
 Cereal (cups), n = 3552 1.9 [1.8,2.1] 1.9 [1.8,2] 2.1 [1.9,2.3] 2.0 [1.8,2.2] 1.8 [1.7,2] 1.8 [1.7,1.9] .07
  1. Results are survey design-based percentage and except a in which results are mean. b P values were derived from survey design-based Pearson chi square test for comparisons for difference in prevalence, and Bonferroni test for difference in mean. “NA” data were not available. Among bread consumers, the median serve of bread consumed was 2 serves [interquartile range 2–4], with 2 [2, 3] of female, and 3 [2,3,4] of male. Among bread substitute consumers, the median serve of bread consumed was 2 serves [interquartile range 2–4], and the same with male and female