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Table 3 Characteristics of non-pregnant women of childbearing age by site and body mass index (BMI)a

From: Anthropometric indices for non-pregnant women of childbearing age differ widely among four low-middle income populations

  Equateur Province, DRC Chimaltenango, Guatemala N Karnataka, India Thatta, Pakistan
Characteristic UW (n = 264) NW (n = 1378) OW (n = 99) p-value* UW (n = 21) NW (n = 838) OW (n = 836) p-value* UW (n = 677) NW (n = 968) OW (n = 178) p-value* UW (n = 704) NW (n = 1182) OW (n = 122) p-value*
Maternal age categories, n (%)
 15–18 y 44 (16.7) 342 (24.8) 12 (12.1) 0.0026 3 (14.3) 91 (10.9) 42 (5.0) <0.0001 121 (17.9) 134 (13.8) 21 (11.8) <0.0001 121 (17.2) 145 (12.3) 8 (6.6) <0.0001
 19–24 y 112 (42.4) 556 (40.3) 43 (43.4) 13 (61.9) 402 (48.0) 296 (35.4) 438 (64.7) 579 (59.8) 84 (47.2) 307 (43.6) 450 (38.1) 34 (27.9)
 25–37 y 108 (40.9) 480 (34.8) 44 (44.4) 5 (23.8) 345 (41.2) 498 (59.6) 118 (17.4) 255 (26.3) 73 (41.0) 276 (39.2) 587 (49.7) 80 (65.6)
Parity categories, n (%)
 0 64 (24.2) 420 (30.5) 29 (29.3) 0.33 2 (9.5) 65 (7.8) 68 (8.1) 0.84 240 (35.5) 306 (31.6) 56 (31.5) 0.0069 274 (38.9) 444 (37.6) 40 (32.8) 0.10
 1–2 123 (46.6) 603 (43.8) 46 (46.5) 12 (57.1) 539 (64.3) 517 (61.8) 414 (61.2) 589 (60.8) 113 (63.5) 246 (34.9) 368 (31.1) 41 (33.6)
 ≥ 3 77 (29.2) 355 (25.8) 24 (24.2) 7 (33.3) 234 (27.9) 251 (30.0) 23 (3.4) 73 (7.5) 9 (5.1) 184 (26.1) 370 (31.3) 41 (33.6)
Maternal education categorized, n (%)
 No formal schooling 68 (25.8) 288 (20.9) 15 (15.2) 0.0001 1 (4.8) 70 (8.4) 66 (7.9) 0.65 49 (7.2) 82 (8.5) 8 (4.5) 0.29 589 (83.7) 975 (82.5) 75 (61.5) <0.0001
 Primary 153 (58.0) 802 (58.2) 46 (46.5) 12 (57.1) 567 (67.7) 569 (68.1) 101 (14.9) 151 (15.6) 23 (12.9) 77 (10.9) 134 (11.4) 24 (19.7)
 Secondary + 43 (16.3) 288 (20.9) 38 (38.4) 8 (38.1) 201 (24.0) 201 (24.0) 527 (77.8) 735 (75.9) 147 (82.6) 38 (5.4) 73 (6.2) 23 (18.9)
Tally of indicators of higher SESb
 0 indicators present 162 (61.4) 690 (50.1) 32 (32.3) <0.0001 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 0.0008 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) <0.0001 23 (3.3) 32 (2.7) 1 (0.8) <0.0001
 1–2 present 99 (37.5) 668 (48.5) 62 (62.6) 4 (19.0) 118 (14.1) 70 (8.4) 83 (12.3) 91 (9.4) 10 (5.6) 350 (49.7) 516 (43.6) 27 (22.1)
 3–4 present 3 (1.1) 20 (1.5) 5 (5.1) 14 (66.7) 478 (57.0) 473 (56.6) 458 (67.7) 623 (64.4) 96 (53.9) 238 (33.8) 434 (36.7) 49 (40.2)
 5–6 present 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (14.3) 240 (28.6) 293 (35.0) 136 (20.1) 254 (26.2) 72 (40.4) 93 (13.2) 200 (16.9) 45 (36.9)
  1. a Underweight (UW) defined as BMI <18.5; Normal weight (NW) as 18.5 – <25.0; Overweight/Obesity (OW) as ≥25.0
  2. b In order to compare socio-economic status (SES) across sites, we looked at commonly reported indicators of SES, namely 1) electricity, 2) improved water source, 3) sanitation, 4) man-made flooring, 5) improved cooking fuels, and 6) household assets. Improved water source includes faucet inside house, public tap, other pipe source, public well, mechanical pump well, bore well within home, protected water source; improved cooking fuel includes electricity, LPG, natural gas, kerosene, or coal; assets include: radio, TV, telephone, bike, motorcycle/motor scooter, or refrigerator, or household owns a car or truck. We tallied these six indicators and reported the proportion of families without any, with 1–2 indicators, with 3–4 indicators, and 5–6 of these indicators present
  3. * P-values from chi-square tests to assess for associations between BMI and characteristic of interest