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Table 2 Knowledge about CVD types, their risk factors and symptoms of heart attack and stroke according to sex among adults in Buea, Cameroon, 2016

From: Population awareness of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in Buea, Cameroon

  Male Female Total p-value
Types of Cardiovascular disease     
 Coronary heart disease     0.011
  Yes 177 (40.0) 255 (35.9) 432 (37.5)  
  I don’t know 254 (57.5) 450 (63.4) 704 (61.1)  
  No 11 (2.5) 05 (0.7) 16 (1.4)  
 Stroke     0.010
  Yes 86 (19.7) 102 (14.6) 188 (16.6)  
  I don’t know 288 (66.1) 520 (64.4) 808 (71.2)  
  No 62 (14.2) 77 (11.0) 139 (12.2)  
 Peripheral arterial disease     0.001
  Yes 111 (25.2) 130 (18.5) 241 (21.0)  
  I don’t know 292 (66.2) 536 (76.1) 828 (72.3)  
  No 38 (8.6) 38 (5.4) 76 (6.6)  
 Rheumatic heart disease     0.027
  Yes 115 (26.2) 143 (20.3) 258 (22.6)  
  I don’t know 293 (66.7) 522 (74.1) 815 (71.3)  
  No 31 (7.1) 39 (5.5) 70 (6.1)  
 Congenital heart disease     0.028
  Yes 131 (29.7) 171 (24.2) 302 (26.3)  
  I don’t know 281 (63.7) 503 (71.1) 784 (68.3)  
  No 29 (6.6) 33 (4.7) 62 (5.4)  
 Deep vein thrombosis & Pulmonary embolism     0.003
  Yes 120 (27.3) 145 (20.6) 265 (23.1)  
  I don’t know 293 (66.6) 534 (75.7) 827 (72.2)  
  No 27 (6.1) 26 (3.7) 53 (4.6)  
Risk factors for Cardiovascular disease
 Family history of cardiovascular disease     0.537
  Yes 215 (49.0) 329 (46.8) 544 (47.6)  
  I don’t know 150 (34.2) 263 (37.4) 413 (36.2)  
  No 74 (16.9) 111 (15.8) 185 (16.2)  
 Smoking     0.730
  Yes 359 (81.8) 573 (82.1) 932 (82.0)  
  I don’t know 61 (13.9) 101 (14.5) 162 (14.2)  
  No 19 (4.3) 24 (3.4) 43 (3.8)  
 Unhealthy diet     0.535
  Yes 305 (69.5) 500 (71.2) 805 (70.6)  
  I don’t know 99 (22.6) 158 (22.5) 257 (22.5)  
  No 35 (8.0) 44 (6.3) 79 (6.9)  
 Lack of exercise     0.175
  Yes 297 (68.0) 466 (66.4) 763 (67.0)  
  I don’t know 91 (20.8) 174 (24.8) 265 (23.3)  
  No 49 (11.2) 62 (8.8) 111 (9.7)  
 Obesity     0.269
  Yes 294 (67.1) 500 (71.3) 794 (69.7)  
  I don’t know 113 (25.8) 163 (23.3) 272 (24.2)  
  No 31 (7.1) 38 (5.4) 69 (6.1)  
 Stress     0.211
  Yes 322 (73.5) 512 (72.8) 834 (73.1)  
  I don’t know 93 (21.6) 136 (19.3) 229 (20.1)  
  No 23 (5.3) 55 (7.8) 78 (6.8)  
 High levels of LDL cholesterol     0.053
  Yes 158 (36.0) 223 (31.8) 381 (33.4)  
  I don’t know 251 (57.2) 447 (63.7) 698 (61.2)  
  No 30 (6.8) 32 (4.6) 62 (5.4)  
 High blood pressure     0.048
  Yes 306 (69.5) 532 (75.7) 838 (73.3)  
  I don’t know 110 (25.0) 147 (20.9) 257 (22.5)  
  No 24 (5.5) 24 (3.4) 48 (4.2)  
 Diabetes mellitus     0.425
  Yes 260 (59.1) 433 (61.9) 693 (60.8)  
  I don’ know 129 (29.3) 203 (29.0) 332 (29.1)  
  No 51 (11.6) 64 (9.1) 115 (10.1)  
Symptoms of Heart attack
  Men Women Total p -value
 Pain in the neck, jaw or back     0.212
  Yes 116 (26.5) 213 (30.5) 329 (28.9)  
  I don’t know 222 (50.7) 351 (50.2) 573 (50.4)  
  No 100 (22.8) 135 (19.3) 235 (20.7)  
 Feeling weak, light-headed or faint     0.080
  Yes 216 (49.1) 379 (53.8) 595 (52.0)  
  I don’t know 170 (38.6) 266 (37.7) 436 (38.1)  
  No 54 (12.3) 60 (8.5) 114 (10.0)  
 Chest pain or discomfort     0.404
  Yes 253 (57.4) 401 (57.0) 654 (57.2)  
  I don’t know 152,934.5) 258 (36.7) 410 (35.8)  
  No 36 (8.2) 44 (6.3) 80 (7.0)  
 Pain or discomfort in arms or shoulder     0.112
  Yes 114 (26.0) 147 (21.2) 261 (23.0)  
  I don’t know 232 (52.8) 407 (58.6) 639 (56.3)  
  No 93 (21.2) 141 (20.3) 234 (20.6)  
 Shortness of breath     0.038
  Yes 285 (64.5) 504 (70.9) 789 (68.4)  
  I don’t know 134 (30.3) 185 (26.0) 319 (27.7)  
  No 23 (5.2) 22 (3.1) 45 (3.9)  
Symptoms of Stroke
 Sudden numbness/weakness in face, arm or leg     <0.0001
  Yes 303 (69.5) 563 (80.0) 866 (76.0)  
  I don’t know 109 (25.0) 116 (16.5) 225 (19.7)  
  No 24 (5.5) 25 (3.6) 49 (4.3)  
 Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding others     0.386
  Yes 273 (62.8) 437 (62.5) 710 (62.6)  
  I don’t know 122 (28.0) 181 (25.9) 303 (26.7)  
  No 40 (9.2) 81 (11.6) 121 (10.7)  
 Sudden poor vision in one or both eyes     0.923
  Yes 155 (35.8) 258 (37.0) 413 (36.5)  
  I don’t know 197 (45.5) 311 (44.6) 508 (44.9)  
  No 81 (18.7) 129 (18.5) 210 (18.6)  
 Sudden dizziness, difficulty walking or loss of balance     0.142
  Yes 295 (67.4) 510 (72.8) 805 (70.7)  
  I don’t know 118 (26.9) 155 (22.1) 273 (24.0)  
  No 25 (5.7) 36 (5.1) 61 (5.4)  
 Severe headache with no known cause     0.022
  Yes 110 (25.3) 228 (32.7) 338 (29.8)  
  I don’t know 222 (51.0) 308 (44.1) 530 (46.8)  
  No 103 (23.7) 162 (23.2) 265 (23.4)  
  1. Numbers represent frequency and percentage in brackets for categorical variables
  2. Abbreviations: LDL low density lipoprotein, group comparisons done with chi square test