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Table 2 Multiple linear regression of Changes in GDS score on change in working status by gender (full-sample)

From: Retirement and mental health: does social participation mitigate the association? A fixed-effects longitudinal analysis

Independent variables Dependent Variable: Changes in GDS-15 score from 2010 to 2013
Model 1 Model 2
Men Women Men Women
β coefficient (95%CI)
Changes in working status (2010–2013)
 Kept working Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Retired 0.33 (0.21, 0.45) 0.29 (0.13,0.45) 0.33 (0.21,0.45) 0.28 (0.12,0.44)
 Started work −0.20 (−0.38, −0.02) 0.10 (−0.13,0.33) −0.21 (−0.39,-0.03) 0.10 (−0.13,0.33)
 Continuously retired 0.13 (0.05, 0.20) 0.05 (−0.04,0.14) 0.10 (0.02,0.18) 0.05 (−0.03,0.14)
Changes in Equivalized household income (10,000 JPY) −0.0004 (−0.0007, −0.0002) −0.0005 (−0.0007,-0.0002) −0.0004 (−0.0007,-0.0002) −0.0004 (−0.0007,-0.0002)
Changes in IADL −0.24 (−0.26, −0.21) −0.28 (−0.31,-0.25) −0.23 (−0.25,-0.2) −0.26 (−0.3,-0.23)
Incidence of stressful life events in the past 1 year
 Serious illnesses 0.59 (0.47, 0.70) 0.70 (0.54,0.87) 0.58 (0.46,0.7) 0.70 (0.53,0.87)
 Started family caregiving 0.54 (0.35, 0.73) 0.55 (0.38,0.72) 0.54 (0.34,0.73) 0.55 (0.38,0.72)
Changes in marital status
 Married – Married Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Married - Not married 0.48 (0.26, 0.70) 0.15 (−0.02,0.32) 0.48 (0.26,0.7) 0.16 (−0.01,0.33)
 Not married – Married −0.04 (−0.45, 0.36) 0.54 (0.13,0.95) −0.04 (−0.44,0.37) 0.51 (0.11,0.92)
 Not married - Not married 0.20 (0.08,0.31) 0.11 (0.04,0.18) 0.21 (0.09,0.33) 0.11 (0.04,0.18)
The number of friends subjects met in the past 1 month −0.02 (−0.03,-0.01) −0.03 (−0.04,-0.02)
Colleagues as a friend who subjects met frequently
 Continuously having colleagues as a friend Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Lost colleagues as a friend 0.01 (−0.09,0.11) 0.06 (−0.06,0.19)
 Continuously not having colleagues as a friend 0.08 (0.004,0.16) −0.003 (−0.09,0.09)
 Newly had colleagues as a friend 0.04 (−0.08,0.15) −0.03 (−0.17,0.1)
Emotional support from friends
 Continuously having emotinal social support from friends Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Lost emotional social support from friends 0.16 (0.04,0.28) 0.16 (0.04,0.27)
 Continuously not having emotional social support from friends 0.21 (0.12,0.3) 0.12 (0.04,0.2)
 Newly had emotional support from friends 0.08 (−0.03,0.19) −0.01 (−0.12,0.1)
Instrumental support from friends
 Continuously having instrumental social support from friends Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Lost instrumental social support from friends 0.23 (−0.2,0.66) 0.19 (−0.05,0.42)
 Continuously not having instrumental social support from friends 0.05 (−0.32,0.42) 0.06 (−0.13,0.25)
 Newly had instrumental support from friends −0.01 (−0.42,0.41) −0.08 (−0.33,0.16)
  1. GDS-15 the short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (ranging from 0 to 15, higher score indicates more depressive symptoms). Subjects are those who did not show depression at baseline (GDS score < 5). IADL Instrumental activities of daily living (ranging from 0 to 13, higher score indicates more independency in daily livings). Non-married includes being divorced, widowed, and single. Data of full-sample (all of the 5 sub-versions of JAGES datasets) was used for these analysis
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