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Table 2 Proportion of Fathers Experiencing Barriers to Treatment by Level of Child Externalising Disorders

From: Optimising child outcomes from parenting interventions: fathers’ experiences, preferences and barriers to participation

  Total High EXT Low EXT  
Barrier n (%) n (%) n (%) χ2
Practical
 Cost of service 196 (19.6) 80 (26.9) 117 (16.6) 14.15 *
 Work commitments 196 (19.6) 78 (26.3) 118 (16.8) 11.98
 No time to participate 149 (14.9) 50 (16.9) 99 (14.0) 1.34
 Programs/services not at convenient location 87 (8.7) 36 (12.1) 51 (7.2) 6.30
 Programs/services not at convenient time 84 (8.4) 34 (11.5) 49 (7.0) 5.61
 Long waiting lists 69 (6.9) 40 (13.5) 29 (4.1) 28.52 *
 Problems with transport 43 (4.3) 28 (9.5) 15 (2.1) 27.26 *
 No child care 39 (3.9) 24 (8.1) 14 (2.0) 21.35 *
Knowledge
 Not knowing whether the programs are effective 172 (17.2) 58 (19.5) 114 (16.2) 1.66
 Not knowing what the program is about 161 (16.1) 52 (17.6) 108 (15.3) 0.77
 I didn’t know about parenting programs before 160 (16.0) 46 (15.5) 114 (16.2) 0.07
 I don’t know where to go to participate in a parenting program 149 (14.9) 39 (13.2) 110 (15.6) 0.99
Attitudes and Beliefs
 I don’t feel like my child’s behaviour is a problem 396 (39.6) 51 (17.2) 345 (48.9) 88.21 *
 I don’t feel like I need help with my parenting 288 (28.8) 47 (15.8) 242 (34.3) 34.85 *
 I think my child’s problems require treatment of the child, not the parent 90 (9.0%) 48 (16.2) 42 (6.0) 26.81 *
 I don’t think programs are suitable for fathers 55 (5.5) 29 (9.8) 26 (3.7) 14.67 *
 I feel that it’s a mother’s role to parent the children 30 (3.0) 13 (4.4) 17 (2.4) 2.78
Other
 Worry about being judged 81 (8.1) 43 (14.5) 38 (5.4) 23.40 *
 I don’t feel comfortable asking for/receiving help with parenting or child issues 72 (7.2) 26 (8.8) 45 (6.4) 1.81
 Previous negative experience with mental health professionals 38 (3.8) 19 (6.4) 20 (2.8) 7.08
 Cultural/religious factors 32 (3.2) 23 (7.7) 10 (1.4) 26.25 *
 My partner attended without me and didn’t encourage me to participate 29 (2.9) 19 (6.4) 10 (1.4) 18.39 *
  1. High EXT fathers of children with high or very high levels of externalising disorders (conduct problems or hyperactivity), as indicated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), low EXT fathers of children with close to average or slightly raised levels of externalising disorders, as indicated by the SDQ; N = 1001, df = 1 for all Chi Square comparisons by level of externalising disorders; *Bonferroni-corrected p value (p < .002); all data and analyses adjusted for sampling weights