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Table 2 Physical activity and sedentary behaviour of dog owners and non-dog owners

From: The influence of dog ownership on objective measures of free-living physical activity and sedentary behaviour in community-dwelling older adults: a longitudinal case-controlled study

  Dog owners Non dog owners Difference (DO - NDO) p-value
Number of steps [/day] a,b 10,030 (9063, 11,101) 7269 (6548, 8069) 2762 (1667, 3991) <0.001
Time walking [min/day] a,b 119 (109, 131) 96 (88, 106) 23 (12, 36) <0.001
Time walking at a moderate cadence [min/day] a,b 32 (23, 43) 11 (8, 15) 21 (12, 34) <0.001
Time standing [hours/day] b 4.44 (4.13, 4.75) 4.35 (4.04, 4.66) 0.09 (−0.22, 0.40) 0.566
Time sedentary [hours/day] 9.94 (9.54, 10.35) 10.25 (9.84, 10.66 −0.31 (−0.75, 0.13) 0.163
Number of sedentary events [/day] a,b 44 (41, 47) 52 (48, 57) −8 (−12, −5) <0.001
Time in prolonged sedentary bouts [hours/day] b 5.89 (5.39, 6.39) 5.45 (4.94, 5.96) 0.44 (−0.05, 0.93) 0.081
Number of prolonged sedentary events [/day] 5.82 (5.43, 6.22) 5.75 (5.35, 6.15) 0.07 (−0.38, 0.52) 0.756
  1. Estimated group means. Data are presented as mean (95% Confidence interval), difference in means (95% Confidence Interval of difference) between groups (dog owners – non dog owners) and p-value of comparison. For outcome variables that were log10 transformed, differences in means have been calculate from fold changes.
  2. DO dog owners, NDO non dog owners.
  3. adata log10 transformed prior to analysis
  4. bmodel allowed hetergeniety of do ownership group variances