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Table 3 Random intercept coefficients estimated with maximum likelihood, Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth, Southwest Ethiopia (n = 1919)

From: The effect of food insecurity on health status of adolescents in Ethiopia: longitudinal study

  Model I Model II Model III
Exposure to FI β SE β SE β SE
 Food insecurity 0.357** 0.079 0.322** 0.081 0.281** 0.082
 Time 1.850** 0.291 1.966** 0.308 2.109** 0.312
 Time2 −0.327** 0.071 −0.356** 0.079 −0.381** 0.080
Socio Economic Positions
 Sex (female)    0.195* 0.082 0.189* 0.083
 Age(14–17)    0.082 0.105 0.084 0.117
 Age(18–22)    0.214 0.175 0.166 0.191
 Education-Primary    −0.380** 0.113 −0.377** 0.113
 Education-Secondary & above    −0.467** 0.131 −0.467** 0.131
 Female headed household    0.015 0.111 0.039 0.119
Parental education
 Primary    −0.063 0.116 −0.065 0.114
 Secondary & above    −0.091 0.117 −0.121 0.117
 Wealth status    −0.030 0.059 −0.064 0.063
 Rural residence    −0.242* 0.122 −0.308* 0.127
 Religiosity index    −0.164** 0.042 −0.168** 0.041
Risk factors and Social support
 Multiple risk factors      0.114* 0.050
 Smokers in the household      0.268* 0.119
 Chronic HH food insecure      −0.109 0.088
 Dietary diversity score      −0.054 0.041
 Had social network & Support      0.061 0.043
 Underweight      −0.035 0.084
 Overweight      −0.565 0.328
 Physical health (illness) in the last one month      0.521** 0.091
 _Cons −3.336** 0.087 −3.114** 0.299 −3.343** 0.316
 Variance (_Cons) 1.038 0.155 0.951 0.141 0.866 0.137
 ICC 23.99 0.027 22.42 0.026 20.84 0.026
  1. FI Food Insecurity, SE Standard Error, HH Households, Cons Constant, ICC Intra Cluster Correlation
  2. *P < =0.05, **P < 0.001;