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Table 5 Association of socio-demographics, CVD a-related knowledge and perception with overall frequency and habit regarding eating among participating adolescent school-students of Kolkata (N = 1652)

From: Exercise and eating habits among urban adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Kolkata, India

Socio-demographics, knowledge and perception Average frequency of food intake (Reference = Approximately appropriate) Overall eating habit (Reference = Poor)
More than appropriate Much more than appropriate Average Good
Variables Categories AOR b (95%CI c) p value AOR b (95%CI c) p value AOR b (95%CI c) p value AOR b (95%CI c) p value
Age in years   1.24(1.05–1.47) 0.011 1.23(1.00–1.53) 0.054 0.82(0.69–0.98) 0.031 0.70(0.56–0.89) 0.003
  Gender of student (Reference = Female) Male 1.04(0.78–1.39) 0.791 1.35(0.93–1.97) 0.116 1.17(0.87–1.56) 0.302 0.88(0.61–1.26) 0.480
Socio-economic status (Reference = Lower) Middle 1.44(0.96–2.14) 0.077 2.58(1.35–4.91) 0.004 0.89(0.60–1.33) 0.576 1.45(0.89–2.36) 0.135
Upper 5.88(3.65–9.48) <0.001 6.75(3.28–13.89) <0.001 0.67(0.42–1.06) 0.083 0.23(0.11–0.47) <0.001
Family history of CVD death (Reference = No) Yes 1.01(0.72–1.41) 0.973 0.99(0.63–1.56) 0.957 1.10(0.78–1.55) 0.594 0.79(0.52–1.21) 0.283
Level of knowledge regarding CVD (Reference = Poor) Average 1.52(1.10–2.09) 0.011 1.46(0.95–2.24) 0.082 0.79(0.57–1.10) 0.158 0.93(0.63–1.37) 0.703
Good 1.25(0.87–1.78) 0.234 1.47(0.93–2.34) 0.099 0.85(0.60–1.22) 0.377 0.90(0.58–1.42) 0.658
Blood pressure and its abnormalities (Reference = Poor) Average 1.32(0.97–1.80) 0.073 1.41(0.94–2.11) 0.093 0.91(0.67–1.24) 0.546 0.63(0.42–0.93) 0.021
Good 1.03(0.65–1.62) 0.906 1.56(0.91–2.69) 0.107 0.62(0.39–1.00) 0.048 0.85(0.50–1.46) 0.556
Risk factors for CVD (Reference = Poor) Average 1.49(1.08–2.05) 0.017 1.23(0.79–1.90) 0.357 0.96(0.70–1.33) 0.822 0.62(0.41–0.93) 0.020
Good 1.71(1.19–2.47) 0.004 1.84(1.17–2.91) 0.009 0.78(0.54–1.13) 0.192 0.77(0.50–1.19) 0.238
Prevention of CVD (Reference = Poor) Average 1.26(0.92–1.72) 0.146 1.32(0.88–1.97) 0.175 0.99(0.72–1.36) 0.946 0.86(0.59–1.26) 0.446
Good 1.83(1.21–2.77) 0.004 1.46(0.85–2.52) 0.169 1.10(0.73–1.65) 0.640 0.73(0.42–1.28) 0.274
Healthy nutritional habits (Reference = Poor) Average 1.27(0.93–1.75) 0.135 1.13(0.74–1.73) 0.5645 0.98(0.71–1.36) 0.921 0.77(0.51–1.14) 0.186
Good 1.29(0.87–1.90) 0.202 1.69(1.05–2.71) 0.032 0.96(0.65–1.41) 0.835 0.70(0.43–1.16) 0.166
CVD and their prevention (Overall) (Reference = Poor) Average 1.38(1.01–1.88) 0.046 0.97(0.63–1.48) 0.878 0.89(0.65–1.23) 0.480 0.90(0.62–1.30) 0.564
Good 2.09(1.39–3.14) <0.001 2.19(1.34–3.58) 0.002 0.80(0.54–1.18) 0.259 0.55(0.32–0.94) 0.028
Perception about Own body size (Reference = Normal) Underweight 0.93(0.63–1.38) 0.721 0.66(0.38–1.16) 0.147 0.97(0.65–1.46) 0.890 0.83(0.50–1.36) 0.456
Overweight 0.61(0.44–0.86) 0.004 0.57(0.36–0.90) 0.015 1.23(0.87–1.72) 0.240 1.23(0.82–1.85) 0.320
Own risk for future CVD (Reference = No) Yes 0.86(0.59–1.25) 0.434 1.55(1.00–2.40) 0.048 0.54(0.36–0.80) 0.002 0.65(0.41–1.03) 0.067
Overall health (Reference = Good) Average 0.87(0.64–1.17) 0.353 1.12(0.76–1.66) 0.578 0.85(0.62–1.15) 0.287 0.84(0.58–1.22) 0.367
Poor 0.78(0.38–1.61) 0.504 1.73(0.79–3.82) 0.173 0.63(0.30–1.33) 0.226 0.82(0.35–1.89) 0.634
  1. a CVD Cardio-vascular diseases
  2. b AOR Adjusted odds ratio (adjusted for: age, gender, socio-economic status and family history)
  3. c CI Confidence interval
  4. Bolfaced figures indicate statistically significant results where p value was <0.05