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Table 3 Correlation between serving size and calorie density in each Schedule Ma food category

From: Unregulated serving sizes on the Canadian nutrition facts table – an invitation for manufacturer manipulations

Food group Number Pearson Correlation - r p
Bakery Products
 1. Bread 183 −0.3493 0
 2. Bagels, tea biscuits, scones etc. 227 0.006 0.0001
 7. Coffee cakes, doughnuts, danishes etc. 89 −0.3107 0.003
 8. Cookies, graham wafers 294 −0.0972 0.0961
 9. Crackers, hard bread sticks etc. 238 −0.2227 0.0005
 14. Croutons 53 −0.6452 0
 15. French toast, pancakes, and waffles 93 −0.2151 0.0384
 17. Grain-based bars with filling and coating 85 0.1998 0.0667
 18. Rice cakes and corn cakes 62 0.5732 0
 19. Pies, tarts, cobblers, turnovers 94 −0.3318 0.0011
Cereals and Other Grain Products
 28. Hot breakfast cereals 57 0.2337 0.0802
 30. Breakfast cereals without fruit or nuts 85 −0.3751 0.0004
 31. Breakfast cereals with fruit and nuts 145 0.0097 0.9079
 34. Grains, such as rice or barley 85 0.2446 0.0241
 35. Pastas without sauce 383 −0.008 0.8757
Dairy Products and Substitutes
 39. Cheese 380 0.2066 0.00005
 43. Quark, fresh cheese and fresh dairy desserts 63 −0.4323 0.0004
 49. Plant-based beverages 138 −0.4618 0
 52. Yogurt 95 −0.0726 0.4845
Desserts
 53. Ice cream, ice milk, frozen yogurt, sherbet 282 0.2197 0.0002
 54. Dairy desserts, frozen 97 0.5856 0
Fats and Oils
 64. Butter, margarine, shortening, lard 91 −0.202 0.0548
 65. Vegetable oil 105 0.2112 0.0306
 67. Dressings for salad 227 0.0552 0.408
Marine and Fresh Water Animals
 72. Marine and fresh water animals 132 −0.353 0.00003
 73. Marine and fresh water animals, canned 116 0.2288 0.0135
Fruits and Fruit Juices
 75. Fruit, fresh, canned or frozen 167 −0.2265 0.0032
 77. Dried fruit 69 −0.2073 0.0874
 83. Juices, nectars and fruit drinks 553 −0.9073 0
Legumes
 86. Beans, peas and lentils 78 −0.227 0.0457
Meat, Poultry, Their Products and Substitutes
 90. Luncheon meats 107 0.1014 0.2989
 91. Sausages 102 −0.0376 0.0014
 93. Patties, cutlettes, chopettes etc. 103 0.1431 0.1493
 96. Meat and poultry with sauce 106 −0.3741 0.00008
Miscellaneous category
 99. Bread crumbs and batter mixes 151 −0.2137 0.0084
Combination Dishes
 107. Measurable 366 −0.5304 0
 108. Not measurable 304 −0.6052 0
 109. Hor d’oeuvres 104 −0.2401 0.0141
Nuts and Seeds    
 110. Nuts and seeds 67 −0.2491 0.0421
Sauces, Dips, Gravies and Condiments
 120. Sauces for dipping 117 −0.2977 0.0011
 121. Dips 92 −0.0984 0.3506
 122. Major main entree sauce 145 −0.4883 0
 123. Minor main entree sauce 102 0.2153 0.0298
 124. Major condiments 100 0.2593 0.0092
 125. Minor condiments 48 0.1166 0.43
Snacks
 126. Chips, pretzels, popcorn, extruded snacks 375 0.5575 0
 127. Nuts or seeds for use as snacks 88 −0.1716 0.1099
 Sugars and Sweets
 137. Jams, jellies, marmalades etc. 145 0.0318 0.7042
 141. syrups 50 −0.0321 0.8323
Vegetables
 150. Pickles 54 −0.1669 0.2278
  1. 50 of the 153 categories in schedule M had greater than 50 foods and thus were included in the analysis
  2. aSchedule M is a component of the Food and Drug Regulations (B.01.001) which includes reference amounts and recommended serving sizes for the Nutrition Facts table on packaged food products. These references are voluntary and are only mandatory when manufacturers are aiming to meet the compositional criteria for nutrient content claims and health claims
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