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Table 4 Associations between harsh physical punishment in childhood and intimate partner violence in adulthood

From: The relationships between harsh physical punishment and child maltreatment in childhood and intimate partner violence in adulthood

  Perpetration only Victimization only Both perpetration and victimization
Harsh physical punishment 1.7 (1.4, 2.0)*** 1.7 (1.4, 2.1)*** 1.4 (1.1, 1.7)*
Sex 1.2 (1.0, 1.4)* 2.7 (2.1, 3.3)*** 0.5 (0.4, 0.6)***
Age 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)*** 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)*** 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)***
Marital status
 Widowed/divorced/separated 1.1 (0.9, 1.4) 0.7 (0.5, 0.9)* 2.7 (2.1, 3.6)***
 Never Married 0.8 (0.7, 1.0) 0.7 (0.5, 1.0)* 1.3 (1.0, 1.7)
Race/Ethnicity
 Black, Non, Hispanic 2.0 (1.7, 2.4)*** 2.0 (1.6, 2.5)*** 1.7 (1.3, 2.2)***
 American Indian/Alaska Native 1.6 (1.0, 2.5)* 1.9 (1.1, 3.2)* 1.0 (0.5, 2.1)
 Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander 1.1 (0.7, 2.0) 0.9 (0.5, 1.8) 1.1 (0.4, 2.9)
 Hispanic 1.2 (0.9, 1.4) 1.2 (0.9, 1.6) 1.4 (1.0, 1.8)*
Education
 High school or equivalent 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) 1.3 (0.9, 1.8) 1.2 (0.9, 1.7)
 Some college or higher 0.7 (0.5, 0.9)** 0.9 (0.6, 1.2) 1.3 (0.9, 1.8)
Household income
 $20,000–$39,999 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) 0.7 (0.6, 1.0)* 0.8 (0.6, 1.1)*
 $40,000–$59,999 0.7 (0.6, 0.9)** 0.6 (0.4, 0.8)** 0.6 (0.4, 0.9)*
 $60,000+ 0.6 (0.5, 0.8)*** 0.5 (0.4, 0.7)*** 0.7 (0.5, 1.0)
Any family history of dysfunction 1.3 (1.1, 1.6)** 1.2 (0.9, 1.5) 1.8 (1.5, 2.2)***
Any child maltreatment 2.1 (1.7, 2.6)*** 1.5 (1.2, 1.9)*** 1.9 (1.5, 2.5)***
  1. AOR. Adjusted for sex, age, marital status, race/ethnicity, education, and household income, any family history of dysfunction, and any childhood maltreatment. Sex reference group was males. Marital status reference group is married/co-habiting. Race/ethnicity reference group is White, non-Hispanic. Education reference group is less than high school. Household income reference group is $0–$19,999. Perpetration only, victimization only, and both perpetration and victimization are mutually exclusive groups. *p ≤ .05, **p ≤ .01, ***p ≤ .001
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