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Table 2 Prevalence of child maltreatment and adult IPV among individuals with and without harsh physical punishment in childhood

From: The relationships between harsh physical punishment and child maltreatment in childhood and intimate partner violence in adulthood

  No harsh physical punishment (pushing, grabbing, shoving, hitting, and/or slapping)
n (%)
Harsh physical punishment (pushing, grabbing, shoving, hitting, and/or slapping)
n (%)
Child maltreatment
 Emotional abuse
  n (%) 638 (2.1) 2268 (36.8)
 Sexual abuse
  n (%) 2248 (7.4) 1602 (25.0)
 Physical neglect
  n (%) 5411 (18.6) 3133 (51.6)
 Emotional neglect
  n (%) 1892 (6.2) 1509 (24.6)
 Physical abuse
  n (%) 256 (0.8) 2451 (39.0)
 Exposure to IPV   
  n (%) 1748 (5.5) 2061 (32.9)
 Any child maltreatment
  n (%) 8838 (30.1) 4754 (78.2)
Intimate partner violence (IPV)
 No IPV
  n (%) 19,359 (93.6) 3982 (86.1)
 Perpetration only
  n (%) 456 (1.8) 191 (3.5)
 Victimization only
  n (%) 397 (1.8) 185 (3.8)
 Both perpetration and victimization   
  n (%) 664 (2.8) 368 (6.7)
  1. All n’s were unweighted. All percents were weighted