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Table 2 Associations between antenatal attendance, and access to other services and birth outcomes in worst case scenario (women with unknown attendance classified as not having attended ANC)

From: Attendance at antenatal clinics in inner-city Johannesburg, South Africa and its associations with birth outcomes: analysis of data from birth registers at three facilities

Variable Univariate odds ratio P Multivariate odds ratio P
Had an HIV test
 Attended ANC
  Yes 1.0 <0.001 1.0 <0.001
  No 0.04 (0.04–0.05) 0.05 (0.05–0.06)
 Site
  Primary level 1.0   1.0  
  Secondary level 3.38 (3.04–3.76) <0.001 3.01 (2.66–3.41) <0.001
  Tertiary level 6.74 (6.25–7.27) <0.001 5.36 (4.92–5.85) <0.001
Had a Caesarean section
 Attended ANC
  Yes 1.0 <0.001 1.0 <0.001
  No 0.34 (0.31–0.38) 0.39 (0.35–0.44)
 Site
  Secondary level 1.0 <0.001 1.0 <0.001
  Tertiary level 3.75 (3.47–4.05) 3.35 (3.10–3.63)
 HIV status
  Negative 1.0   1.0  
  Positive 1.06 (1.00–1.13) 0.04 1.0 (0.94–1.06) 0.98
  Unknown 0.50 (0.45–0.56) <0.001 0.64 (0.57–0.72) <0.001
 Gestation at childbirth
  Term or post-term 1.0 <0.001 1.0 <0.001
  Preterm 1.46 (1.37–1.56) 1.24 (1.17–1.33)
Preterm birth
 Attended ANC
  Yes 1.0 0.77 1.0 <0.001
  No 1.01 (0.92–1.11) 1.59 (1.40–1.79)
 Site
  Primary level 1.0 <0.001 1.0 <0.001
  Secondary level 3.34 (2.07–5.40) 5.41 (3.34–8.78)
  Tertiary level 106.6 (72.5–156.9) <0.001 216.9 (146.1–322.1) <0.001
 Infant sex
  Male 1.0 0.55 - -
  Female 0.98 (0.92–1.05)
 HIV status
  Negative 1.0 <0.001 1.0 <0.001
  Positive 1.25 (1.16–1.33) 1.33 (1.23–1.43)
  Unknown 1.13 (1.03–1.24) <0.001 4.01 (3.53–4.55) <0.001
Stillbirtha
 Attended ANC
  Yes 1.0 <0.001 1.0 0.02
  No 2.0 (1.6–2.4) 1.40 (1.06–1.85)
 Site
  Primary level 1.0 0.78 1.0 0.08
  Secondary level 0.92 (0.50–1.67) 1.73 (0.93–3.19)
  Tertiary level 6.57 (4.59–9.40) <0.001 16.6 (11.2–24.7) <0.001
 HIV status
  Negative 1.0   1.0  
  Positive 1.12 (0.90–1.38) 0.31 1.09 (0.87–1.36) 0.46
  Unknown 2.38 (1.93–2.93) <0.001 4.24 (3.29–5.48) <0.001
 Delivery mode
  Vaginal delivery 1.0 0.14 1.0 <0.001
  Caesarean section 0.87 (0.72–1.05) 0.5 (0.4–0.6)
 Infant sex
  Male 1.0 0.004 1.0 0.004
  Female 0.77 (0.65–0.92) 0.76 (0.64–0.92)
  1. Caesarean sections are not done at HCHC. No births considered post-term. Worst case scenario is the number of women who attended ANC among all women (women with unknown attendance classified as not having attended ANC)
  2. aIncludes death shortly after birth