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Table 1 The comprehensive COMMVAC taxonomy of communication interventions for childhood vaccination

From: The comprehensive ‘Communicate to Vaccinate’ taxonomy of communication interventions for childhood vaccination in routine and campaign contexts

Purpose Intervention types
Inform or Educate Interpersonal communication
Interventions to enable people to understand the meaning and relevance of vaccination to their health and the health of their family or community. Interventions may be tailored to particular populations and can also serve to address misinformation. e.g. face to face interactions, one-on-one or in groups
Printed material
e.g. pamphlets, brochures, fact sheets, media kits
Mail
e.g. postcards, letters, newsletters or email
Phone
e.g. telephone calls, hotlines or SMS
Objects, devices or tools
e.g. printed mugs, t-shirts, magnets or calendars
Web-based
e.g. online forums, social media, websites
School curriculum kits
e.g. lesson plans, activity booklets, or other materials designed for use in schools
Community event
e.g. rallies, vaccination carnivals, health week events
Edutainment performance
e.g. song, skit, docudrama or performance on TV, radio, film, theatre
Mass media advertising
e.g. notifications or advertisements delivered by newspaper, radio, TV, town criers
Celebrity spokespeople
e.g. messages delivered by recognisable or influential people
Remind or Recall Interpersonal communication
Interventions to remind consumers of required vaccinations and to recall those who are overdue. e.g. face to face interactions, one-on-one or in groups
Mail
e.g. postcards, letters, newsletters or email
Phone
e.g. telephone calls, hotlines or SMS
Objects, devices or tools
e.g. vaccination cards, printed mugs, t-shirts, magnets or calendars
Electronic or physical prompts for providers
e.g. reminders targeting healthcare providers during consultations
Enhance Community Ownership Community input
Interventions to increase community participation and promote interaction between the community and health services. Interventions may build trust among consumers and generate awareness and understanding of vaccination. Interventions of this nature embrace community involvement in planning, programme delivery, research, social mobilisation, advocacy or governance. e.g. seeking input or feedback related to intervention design, planning or research
Community involvement in vaccination programme delivery
e.g. engagement of members of the community as peer educators, mothers’ support networks, social mobilisers
Engagement of local opinion leaders
e.g. faith leaders, local government officials, respected members of a community
Community coalition
e.g. community health or ward development committees
Partnership building
e.g. vaccine organisers forming partnerships with local businesses, religious centres, community organisations
Teach Skills Communication training
Interventions focusing on the acquisition of skills related to accessing vaccination services and communicating about vaccination. Such interventions aim to teach parents early parenting skills such as how to find, access and utilise vaccination services. They also include interventions to train parents, communities and health care providers on how to communicate or provide vaccination-related education to others. e.g. training in communication or education provision skills for community members, volunteers, health professionals, lay health workers or others
Parenting skills programs
e.g. early parenting skills training including how to find, access and utilise vaccination services
Provide Support Interpersonal communication
Interventions, often tailored or personalised, to assist people in addressing specific challenges to vaccination that arise within their day-to-day lives (e.g. social issues such as disagreement within a family regarding vaccinating or emotional issues such as parental anxiety about vaccination).
In contrast to interventions to inform or educate, interventions to provide support are more focused on addressing specific challenges faced by parents when making vaccination decisions.
e.g. face to face interactions, one-on-one or in groups
Phone
e.g. telephone calls, hotlines or SMS
Web-based
e.g. online forums, social media, websites
Facilitate Decision-Making Decision aids
Interventions that extend beyond informing or educating by presenting all options related to vaccination decision-making in an unbiased and impartial manner. These interventions should explain the decision to be made, provide detailed, evidence-based information about the risks and benefits of vaccination and should help people consider their personal values and options related to the decision to vaccinate their child. e.g. written or interactive decision aid tools presenting all options and aspects of vaccination decisions
Decision coaching
e.g. face to face interactions, one on one or in groups, that guide participants to consider all options, personal values and aspects of vaccination decisions
Enable Communication Interpreters
Interventions that explicitly and purposefully aim to bridge a communication gap/make communication possible with particular people or groups. This may include translation beyond routine practice in a particular setting, such as translation into local or minority languages, adaptation of materials for a low- or no-literacy population, translation into Braille, or the use of interpreters. e.g. purposeful engagement of people who speak or sign specific languages
Translation beyond routine practice
e.g. translation into local languages, adaptation of materials for a low- or no-literacy population, translation into Braille