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Table 5 Number of people, number of pupae, and temephos presence in surveys in Managua control sites between 2005 and 2013

From: Beyond efficacy in water containers: Temephos and household entomological indices in six studies between 2005 and 2013 in Managua, Nicaragua

Survey date Temephos observed in any container Temephos not observed in any container OR (95% CI)a
No. people No. pupae (PPP) No. people No. pupae (PPP)
Oct 2005 2100 666 (0.3) 13,519 4296 (0.3) 1.18 (0.85–1.64)
Oct 2006 3736 955 (0.3) 11,825 2351 (0.2) 1.17 (0.83–1.66)
Oct 2007 3997 1271 (0.3) 16,517 4743 (0.3) 1.01 (0.74–1.37)
Jan 2011 4378 404 (0.1) 16,592 1751 (0.1) 1.31 (0.97–1.75)
Aug 2012 7321 2896 (0.7) 14,345 4680 (0.3) 1.36 (1.11–1.67)
Jan 2013 5086 1216 (0.2) 16,052 1879 (0.1) 1.83 (1.41–2.37)
  1. We dichotomised the pupae per person (PPP) variable into households with above and below the mean PPP
  2. OR of >1.0 indicates that households with temephos present were more likely to have a positive entomological indicator; italic font indicates the association was significant at the 5% level
  3. aOdds ratio and 95% confidence intervals from GLMM, with cluster as random effect