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Table 3 Households with larvae or pupae positive containers (Household index) and temephos presence in surveys in Managua control sites between 2005 and 2013

From: Beyond efficacy in water containers: Temephos and household entomological indices in six studies between 2005 and 2013 in Managua, Nicaragua

Survey date Percentage of households with temephos observed in any container Temephos observed in any container Temephos not observed in any container OR (95% CI)a
No. of inspected households No. (%) with any positive containers No. of inspected households No. (%) with any positive containers
Oct 2005 13.1 346 128 (37) 2290 736 (32) 1.28 (1.00–1.64)
Oct 2006 25.1 644 171 (27) 1992 430 (22) 1.18 (0.95–1.48)
Oct 2007 19.8 703 171 (24) 2853 647 (23) 0.97 (0.79–1.19)
Jan 2011 20.6 829 186 (22) 3202 564 (18) 1.27 (1.04–1.55)
Aug 2012 33.2 1394 562 (40) 2806 937 (33) 1.45 (1.25–1.68)
Jan 2013 23.7 966 298 (31) 3108 599 (19) 1.82 (1.53–2.17)
  1. OR of >1.0 indicates that households with temephos present were more likely to have a positive entomological indicator; italic font indicates the association was significant at the 5% level
  2. aOdds ratio and 95% confidence intervals from GLMM, with cluster as random effect