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Table 3 Odds ratios (95% CI) for the association of history of substance use disordera with mental illness

From: Inside the nation’s largest mental health institution: a prevalence study in a state prison system

Mental disorders Substance users with disorder, n (%) Odds Ratio (95% CI)b
Unadjusted Adjusted
Any mental disorder (excluding substance abuse) 1747 (48.5) 8.5 (7.6–9.6) 8.1 (7.2–9.1)
Serious mental disorderc 1198 (53.5) 4.7 (4.2–5.2) 4.4 (4.0–4.9)
Anxiety, general anxiety, panic disorders 766 (34.2) 4.6 (4.0–5.1) 4.2 (3.7–5-4.8)
Depression, major depressive disorders 711 (31.7) 3.0 (2.7–3.4) 2.8 (2.5–3.2)
Personality disorders 520 (23.2) 4.1 (3.5–4.7) 4.0 (3.5–4.6)
Psychosis, psychotic disorders 406 (18.1) 3.7 (3.2–4.3) 3.8 (3.2–4.4)
Developmental disabilities 360 (16.1) 3.2 (2.7–3.7) 2.9 (2.5–3.4)
Bipolar 358 (16.0) 4.0 (3.4–4.7) 3.6 (3.1–4.3)
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 254 (11.3) 2.7 (2.3–3.3) 2.6 (2.2–3.1)
Schizophrenia 117 (5.2) 2.5 (1.9–3.2) 2.8 (2.1–3.6)
Impulse control disorders 87 (3.9) 3.0 (2.2–4.1) 2.9 (2.1–4.0)
Dysthymia, neurotic depression 83 (3.7) 2.6 (1.9–3.4) 2.5 (1.8–3.4)
Sleep, movement and eating disorders 12 (0.5) ne ne
Sexual disorders, paraphilia 2 (0.1) ne ne
Pervasive developmental disorders 2 (0.1) ne ne
  1. Values represent numbers and percentages
  2. ne not estimable
  3. aSubstance use disorder as derived from the ICD9/DSM codes and includes alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder, cannabis-induced psychotic disorder, with hallucinations, other (or unknown) substance-induced psychotic disorder with hallucinations, phencyclidine-induced psychotic disorder, with hallucinations, psychotic disorder NOS, substance-induced, alcohol dependence, opioid dependence, sedative/hypnotic/anxiolytic dependence, cocaine dependence, cannabis dependence, amphetamine dependence, other polysubstance abuse, methamphetamine dependence, hallucinogen dependence, inhalant dependence, polysubstance dependence, other (or unknown) dependence, phencyclidine dependence;
  4. bOdds ratios were generated in logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity; Odds ratios are statistically significant if the 95% CI does not include 1.0
  5. cSerious mental illness includes bipolar disorders, dementia/organic disorders, depression and major depressive disorders, dysthymia/neurotic depression, psychosis/psychotic disorders, schizophrenia, and substance use disorders