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Table 1 Characteristics by disaster-induced changes in socioeconomic status among 14,913 men and 18,437 women aged 20–64 years in Fukushima Health Management Survey, Fukushima, 2012

From: Lifestyle-related factors that explain disaster-induced changes in socioeconomic status and poor subjective health: a cross-sectional study from the Fukushima health management survey

  Men Women
Unchanged Changed P valueb Unchanged Changed P value
No. of participants 4133 10,780   5302 13,135  
Mean age (years) (SDa) 49.1 (12.6) 46.7 (12.8) <0.001 48.0 (12.6) 45.1 (12.8) <0.001
Prevalence of poor subjective health (%) 8.6 17.2 <0.001 10.0 18.1 <0.001
History of disease (%) 53.6 54.2 0.520 44.7 41.2 <0.0001
 Hypertension 32.2 32.8 0.483 23.9 22.0 0.005
 Diabetes 15.8 15.8 0.979 9.7 8.9 0.113
 Dyslipidemia 30.7 33.1 0.005 25.9 23.8 0.003
 Cancer 2.3 2.4 0.865 3.6 2.7 0.001
 Stroke 2.4 2.5 0.684 1.2 1.3 0.882
 Cardiac disease 5.3 5.7 0.306 3.1 3.2 0.724
 Liver disease 1.8 2.2 0.108 1.3 1.1 0.206
 Pneumonia 2.0 2.1 0.502 2.0 2.1 0.679
 Fracture 3.7 3.2 0.160 4.3 3.5 0.009
 Thyroid disease 1.2 0.8 0.032 4.7 4.4 0.412
History of mental illness (%) 4.8 4.5 0.405 4.2 5.7 <0.0001
Activities of daily living (Go shopping for daily necessities) (%)
 Can’t do by myself 1.7 1.2 0.008 1.2 1.0 0.202
Educational status (%)
 Vocational college/ junior college, university•graduate school 28.2 28.2 0.053 34.2 34.7 <0.0001
 High school 54.5 56.1   51.3 54.4  
 Elementary school •junior high school 17.3 15.7   14.5 11.0  
Evacuation place (%)
 Fukushima prefecture 96.3 77.2 <0.001 95.7 72.7 <0.001
 Other prefectures 3.7 22.8   4.3 27.4  
Smoking (%)
 Never smoked 26.2 22.3 <0.001 81.0 71.1 <0.001
 Quit 33.8 31.5   8.9 12.2  
 Current smoker 39.9 46.2   10.1 16.8  
Alcohol consumption (%)       
 Less than once/month 27.9 26.3 0.051 66.1 60.9 <0.001
 Quit 2.8 2.5   1.6 2.4  
 At least once a month 69.3 71.3   32.3 36.7  
Satisfaction of sleep (%)
 Satisfied 45.9 31.7 <0.001 34.5 24.2 <0.001
 Slightly dissatisfied 44.0 47.7   52.4 51.9  
 Complaint 10.2 20.6   13.1 23.9  
Participatin in recreation and community activity (%)
 Never or rarely 50.9 70.9 <0.001 59.5 75.6 <0.001
 Sometimes 35.9 23.6   33.7 20.7  
 Often 13.2 5.5   6.8 3.7  
Regular exercise (%)
 Almost every day 11.5 10.8 0.190 7.7 7.7 0.880
 2–4 times /week 14.4 13.7   14.5 14.3  
 ≤1 time /week 74.1 75.6   77.8 78.1  
  1. a SD standard deviation
  2. b P values were calculated by chi-square test (categorical variables), or t-test (continuous variables)