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Table 5 Maternal gestational diabetes (GDM) and its risk factors predicting physical activity and fitness among adolescents. Mean differences (95% CI) of physical activity (METh/week) and cardiorespiratory fitness (ml·kg−1·min−1) in adolescents exposed to maternal GDM or risk factors compared with offspring of mothers with no risk factors for GDM

From: Prenatal determinants of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence – Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study

  Model No risk factors for GDM Maternal risk factors for GDM but normal OGTT GDM
  BMI < 25 BMI < 25 BMI > 25 Both BMI groups together
Physical activity (METh/week)   N = 3144 N = 457 N = 135 N = 74
1 Mean 31.7 (SD 17.0) −1.6 (−3.3;0.0) −2.4 (−5.3;0.5) −1.6 (−5.5;2.3)
2   −1.8 (−3.4;-0.1)* −1.8 (−4.7;1.1) −1.4 (−5.3;2.5)
3a   −1.6 (−3.3;0.1) −1.4 (−4.4;1.6) −0.9(−4.8;3.0)
3b   −1.8 (−3.5;-0.2)* −1.6 (−4.5;1.3) −1.1 (−4.9;2.8)
3c   −1.6 (−3.3;0.0) −1.5 (−4.4;1.4) −1.2 (−5.1;2.6)
Cardiorespiratory fitness (ml·kg−1·min−1)   N = 2528 N = 371 N = 109 N = 65
1 Mean 43.2 (SD 11.4) −0.7 (−1.7;0.3) −1.7 (−3.3;0.0) −2.3 (−4.4;-0.1)*
2   −0.7 (−1.7;0.2) −1.5 (−3.2;0.2) −2.2 (−4.4;0.0)*
3a   −0.6 (−1.5;0.4) −1.3 (−3.0;0.5) −1.7 (−3.9;0.5)
3b   −0.7 (−1.7;0.2) −1.5 (−3.2;0.2) −2.1 (−4.3;0.0)
3c   −0.5 (−1.4;0.4) 0.1 (−1.5;1.8) −1.1 (−3.1;1.0)
  1. Adolescents of mothers with type 1 diabetes (n = 15 for physical activity and 12 for cardiorespiratory fitness) were excluded from the analysis
  2. Multiple linear regression models are adjusted for:
  3. Model 1: sex
  4. Model 2: sex, parental education
  5. Model 3a: Model 2 + length of gestation, maternal hypertension, BMI of the father at the beginning of pregnancy, smoking of the mother during pregnancy
  6. Model 3b: Model 2 + physical activity of mother and father at the offspring age 16
  7. Model 3c: Model 2 + subject’s BMI, age, pubertal stage and smoking, and season of the year at study
  8. P values are for mean difference between risk factor groups and controls: * < 0.05. Categorical covariates are dummy-coded, with a separate dummy variable for missing values