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Table 3 Maternal BMI before pregnancy in association with physical activity and fitness among adolescents. Mean differences (95% CI) of physical activity (METh/week) and cardiorespiratory fitness (ml·kg−1·min−1) in adolescents whose mothers were underweight, overweight, or obese before pregnancy compared with offspring of normal weight mothers

From: Prenatal determinants of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence – Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study

  Model BMI category (kg/m2)
  < 20 20–25 25–30 > 30
  Underweight Normal weight Overweight Obese
Physical activity (METh/week)   N = 1594 N = 3881 N = 829 N = 229
1 −0.4 (−1.4;0.6) Mean 31.0 (SD 16.9) −0.6 (−1.9;0.6) −3.4 (−5.6;-1.2)*
2 −0.3 (−1.3;0.6)   −0.3 (−1.5;1.0) −2.7 (−5.0;−0.5)*
3a -0.5 (−1.5;0.5)   0.7 (−0.7;2.2) −1.6 (−4.0;0.7)
3b −0.2 (−1.2;0.7)   −0.0 (−1.3;1.2) −2.2 (−4.4;0.0)
3c −0.1 (−1.1;1.0)   −0.2 (−1.5;1.0) −2.3 (−4.5;0.0)*
Cardiorespiratory fitness (ml·kg−1·min−1)   N = 1122 N = 2760 N = 576 N = 148
1 0.6 (0.0;1.2)* Mean 42.6 (SD 10.7) −1.3 (−2.1;-0.6)** −2.2 (−3.6;-0.9)**
2 0.6 (0.1;1.2)*   −1.2 (−2.0;-0.5)** −2.0 (−3.4;-0.6**
3a 0.5 (−0.1;1.1)   −0.8 (−1.7;0.1) −1.5 (−2.9;0.0)
3b 0.6 (0.1;1.2)*   −1.2 (−1.9;-0.4)** −1.9 (−3.3;−0.5)**
3c 0.0 (−0.5;0.5)   -0.5 (−1.3;0.2) 0.3 (−1.0;1.6)
  1. Multiple linear regression models are adjusted for:
  2. Model 1: sex
  3. Model 2: sex, parental education
  4. Model 3a: Model 2 + length of gestation, maternal GDM, maternal hypertension, BMI of the father at the beginning of pregnancy, smoking of the mother during pregnancy
  5. Model 3b: Model 2 + physical activity of mother and father at the offspring age 16
  6. Model 3c: Model 2 + subject’s BMI, age, pubertal stage and smoking, and season of the year at study
  7. P values are for mean difference between risk factor groups and controls: * < 0.05, ** < 0.01. Categorical covariates are dummy-coded, with a separate dummy variable for missing values