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Table 2 Regression coefficients for the associations between toxic metal concentrations and birth weight in males, females and non-smokers

From: Maternal blood cadmium, lead and arsenic levels, nutrient combinations, and offspring birthweight

  A. All data (n = 272) B. Male (n = 130) C. Female (n = 142) D. Non-smokers (n = 233)
Caharacteristic Estimate (Std. Error) P-value Estimate (Std. Error) P-value Estimate (Std. Error) P-value Estimate (Std. Error) P-value
(Intercept) −4721.71 * (693.49) <0.001 −3782.55 (1161.8) 0.002 −4546.38 (1075.15) <0.001 −4251.48 (869.47) <0.001
Moderate Cd −125.97 (160.05) 0.432 −264.59 (264.87) 0.321 −70.98 (247.9) 0.775 −111.12 (172.28) 0.520
High Cd −382.74 (210.06) 0.070 −812.25 (346.1) 0.021 −201.44 (356.57) 0.573 −290.2 (264.06) 0.273
Moderate Pb −68.42 (160.65) 0.671 −225.21 (359.43) 0.533 35.51 (199.73) 0.859 −22.5 (173.71) 0.897
High Pb −120.42 (200.95) 0.550 11.01 (395.46) 0.978 −58.88 (262.59) 0.823 −191.24 (223.77) 0.394
Moderate As −366.5 (175.2) 0.038 −870.69 (372.09) 0.022 −180.59 (218.97) 0.412 −464.29 (202.74) 0.023
High As 72.82 (139.83) 0.603 −310.42 (242.22) 0.204 199.52 (195.24) 0.309 163.61 (161.11) 0.311
Moderate Cd:oderate Pb 68.5 (164.92) 0.678 3.27 (290.12) 0.991 23.69 (254.14) 0.926 95.5 (176.05) 0.588
High Cd:Moderate Pb 129 (200.79) 0.521 477.08 (428.43) 0.269 −63.06 (312.3) 0.84 −68.99 (277.85) 0.804
Moderate Cd:High Pb 403.84 (226.22) 0.076 65.54 (368.9) 0.859 785.05 (363.23) 0.033 322.81 (251.94) 0.202
High Cd:High Pb 113.2 (220.94) 0.609 47.79 (413.45) 0.908 345.83 (357.83) 0.336 −68.44 (301.77) 0.821
Moderate NAN 69.17 (171.44) 0.687 −272.91 (274.51) 0.323 309.38 (332.21) 0.354 −24.77 (187.92) 0.895
High NAN 133.53 (179.46) 0.458 62.14 (319.67) 0.846 48.16 (248.6) 0.847 104.1 (192.18) 0.589
Moderate PAN −106.41 (173.19) 0.540 −527.03 (279.37) 0.063 154.08 (286.47) 0.592 −16.12 (188.07) 0.932
High PAN −306.32 (196.91) 0.121 −736.08 (353.06) 0.04 −171.63 (276.41) 0.536 −271.49 (213.82) 0.206
Moderate Cd:Moderate NAN −15.56 (187.42) 0.934 −83.86 (330.37) 0.8 −52.55 (276.51) 0.85 −19.69 (205.13) 0.924
High Cd: Moderate NAN 103.44 (190.11) 0.587 433.38 (344.66) 0.212 −114.8 (278.45) 0.681 220.18 (219.16) 0.316
Moderate Cd:High NAN 99.37 (213.17) 0.642 −197.68 (361.34) 0.586 317.79 (318.09) 0.320 42.21 (230.92) 0.855
High Cd:High NAN 170.97 (226.96) 0.452 316.61 (462.66) 0.496 77.43 (309.97) 0.803 190.84 (278.84) 0.495
Moderate Cd:Moderate PAN 55.91 (194.67) 0.774 307.21 (334.27) 0.361 12.31 (270.51) 0.964 63.2 (212.11) 0.766
High Cd:Moderate PAN 361.59 (188.45) 0.056 368.06 (366.16) 0.318 458.2 (281.48) 0.107 456.64 (233.05) 0.052
Moderate Cd:High PAN 202.64 (230.04) 0.379 894.08 (404.05) 0.030 −155.77 (322.56) 0.630 263.34 (250.81) 0.295
High Cd:High PAN 477.25 (229.66) 0.039 711.43 (445.54) 0.114 481.47 (334.96) 0.154 449.77 (286.85) 0.119
Moderate Pb:Moderate NAN −187.78 (187.41) 0.317 170.59 (340.91) 0.618 −351.75 (296.46) 0.238 −224.7 (210.09) 0.286
High Pb:Moderate NAN −153.04 (222.77) 0.493 −131.75 (396.94) 0.741 −542.56 (339.57) 0.113 −145.29 (255.15) 0.570
Moderate Pb:High NAN −126.16 (204.89) 0.539 118.2 (388.7) 0.762 −92.68 (292.05) 0.752 −125.5 (231.1) 0.588
High Pb:High NAN 6.28 (235.71) 0.979 −194.48 (469.11) 0.68 −142.03 (353.1) 0.688 3.89 (282.4) 0.989
Moderate Pb:Moderate PAN 30.45 (179.31) 0.865 43.46 (340.04) 0.899 −124.46 (281.42) 0.659 −43.8 (206) 0.832
High Pb:Moderate PAN −109.95 (226.29) 0.628 21.11 (404.4) 0.958 −210.73 (364.93) 0.565 −62.16 (267.16) 0.816
Moderate Pb:High PAN 210.19 (199.96) 0.294 200.26 (365.37) 0.585 266.68 (278.08) 0.340 210.73 (223.78) 0.348
High Pb:High PAN −236.39 (263.92) 0.371 11.09 (464.4) 0.981 −416.52 (406.03) 0.308 −68.75 (321.64) 0.831
Moderate As:Moderate NAN 131.74 (201.75) 0.514 284.7 (390.7) 0.468 34.85 (275.87) 0.900 313.29 (229.55) 0.174
High As:Moderate NAN −272.79 (213.48) 0.203 −274.26 (368.65) 0.459 −199.63 (316.75) 0.530 −243.52 (263.43) 0.356
Median As:High NAN 42.14 (236.38) 0.859 215.27 (442.65) 0.628 5.1 (326.28) 0.988 202.7 (273.88) 0.46
High As:High NAN −430.35 (210.5) 0.042 −548.28 (352.69) 0.124 −163.32 (326.11) 0.618 −464.49 (236.44) 0.051
Median As:Median PAN 177.57 (180.43) 0.326 683.69 (326.62) 0.039 24.95 (251.2) 0.921 162.32 (201.93) 0.423
High As:Median PAN 81.74 (202.68) 0.687 710.58 (315.78) 0.027 −394.93 (305.35) 0.199 7.11 (244.53) 0.977
Median As:High PAN 195.33 (218.9) 0.373 294.86 (394.46) 0.457 206.5 (318.7) 0.519 119.09 (244.02) 0.626
High As:High PAN 158.09 (231.82) 0.496 435.1 (411.65) 0.294 −23.33 (326.51) 0.943 63.95 (256.37) 0.803
  1. *: Coefficients that are statistically significant are shown in bold. Negative-association nutrient (NAN), obtained by the sum of the standardized values of Fe, Se, Ca and total folate. Positive-association nutrient (PAN), obtained by the sum of the standardized values of Zn, Cu, Mg and Mn. Models adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, cigarette smoking, educational attainment, gestational age at delivery and blood draw and sex