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Table 4 Primary and secondary outcome measures for component 4 (randomized trial)

From: Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids (F3HK): An innovative community supported agriculture intervention to prevent childhood obesity in low-income families and strengthen local agricultural economies

Outcome Measure Source/Instrument
Primary outcomes
 Child’s fruit and vegetable intake • Fruit and vegetable screener • National Cancer Institute’s All-Day Fruit and Vegetable Screener [82]a
• Three dietary recalls • Automated Self-Administered 24-h dietary recall (ASA24–2016™) [73]
 Child’s intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and processed snacks • Beverage and snacks questionnaire • Beverage and snack questionnaire 2 (BSQ2) [84, 85]a
• Three dietary recalls • Automated Self-Administered 24-h dietary recall (ASA24–2016™) [73]
 Child’s caloric intake as a percent of estimated energy requirements • Three dietary recalls • Automated Self-Administered 24-h dietary recall (ASA24–2016™) [73]
 Child’s dermal carotenoid levels • Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) of the palm • Pharmanex Biophotonic Scanner S3 (NuSkin, Provo, UT)
 Child’s diet quality • Three dietary recalls • Automated Self-Administered 24-h dietary recall (ASA24–2016™) [73]
• Fruit and vegetable screener • National Cancer Institute’s All-Day Fruit and Vegetable Screener [82]a
• Beverage and snacks questionnaire • Beverage and snack questionnaire 2 (BSQ2) [84, 85]a
Secondary outcomes
 Child’s BMI percentile • Height and weight measured by trained research staff • Lohman [81]
 Child’s physical activity • Questionnaire questions • Burdette et al. [93] and Youth Risk Behavior Survey [92]a
 Child’s sedentary behavior • Questionnaire questions • Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) questionnaire [92]a
 Caregiver’s knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about fruits and vegetables • Questionnaire module • Negative Cooking Attitude scale [86]a, Self-Efficacy for Eating/Cooking Fruits and Vegetables scale [86]a, General Nutrition Knowledge Belief score [87]a, and original
 Caregiver’s ability to select, store, and prepare CSA produce • Questionnaire module • Cooking Techniques and Meal Preparation Self-Efficacy Scale [86]a
 Caregiver’s ability to substitute fruit and vegetables for energy-dense foods • Questionnaire module • Original
 Caregiver’s ability to prepare foods to minimize added (solid) fat and sugar • Questionnaire module • Original
 Availability and accessibility of fruits and vegetables in the home • Questionnaire module • Scales for fruit and vegetable availability and accessibility within the home [88]
 Caregiver’s fruit and vegetable intake • Fruit and vegetable screener • National Cancer Institute’s All-Day Fruit and Vegetable Screener [82]a
 Caregiver’s intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and processed snacks • Beverage and snacks questionnaire • Beverage and snack questionnaire 2 (BSQ2) [84, 85]a
 Caregiver’s dermal carotenoid levels • Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) of the palm • Pharmanex Biophotonic Scanner S3 (NuSkin, Provo, UT)
 Household food security • Questionnaire module • US Department of Agriculture 6-item Food Security Module with 30-day reference period [89]a
  1. aIndicates the tool was modified or adapted