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Table 2 Combined regression modelsa for correlates of screen time and sedentary time for boys and girls

From: Do the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool children?

Variable Screen time mins/day Sedentary time mins/day
Boys (n = 504) Girls (n = 433) Boys (n = 394) Girls (n = 323)
β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Individual level
Demographic and family profile
Child disability/poor health - - - 10.18 (−3.03, 23.40)
Child sleep duration (hours) −7.49 (−13.46, −1.52) −5.67 (−11.57, 0.23) −3.97 (−7.95, 0.01) −5.76 (−8.83, −2.69)
Mother born in Australia 0.99 (−11.45, 13.42) −15.66 (−28.97, −2.35) - -
Maternal BMI categoryc
 Healthy weight (ref) - 0 - 0
 Overweight - 1.56 (−12.22, 15.34) - 8.55 (−0.90, 18.00)
 Obese - 15.11 (−4.11, 34.32) - 5.20 (−4.05, 14.45)
Maternal disability/poor health - - - 10.97 (−5.36, 27.30)
Maternal education
Year 10 or equivalent (ref) - 0 - -
Year 12/trade/diploma - −3.39 (−27.86, 21.09) - -
University degree/post-graduate - −2.62 (−30.91, 25.66) - -
Low income status (health care/pension card) - −4.22 (−23.18, 14.74) - -
Paternal age (years) - - 0.73 (0.10, 1.35) -
Father born in Australia - −3.93 (−17.82, 9.95) - -
Paternal BMI categoryc
 Healthy weight (ref) 0 - - -
 Overweight −1.15 (−13.03, 10.74) - - -
 Obese 2.79 (−12.80, 18.37) - - -
Paternal education
 Year 10 or equivalent (ref) - 0 - -
 Year 12/trade/diploma - 23.26 (0.11, 46.41) - -
 University degree/post-graduate - 9.66 (−16.33, 35.65) - -
Child PA and SB
Usual frequency of active transport per week (e.g., ride a bike to kinder) - −1.72 (−3.14, −0.30) - -
Number of organised activities per week (e.g., swimming, tennis) - −7.54 (−15.72, 0.64) - -
Child personality, preferences and constraints     
Child is active for longer with someone else −10.63 (−23.18, 1.93) - - -
Child preferences for SB (e.g., more likely to watch TV than be active) 3.52 (−1.49, 8.53) 7.09 (2.47, 11.70) - -
Child constraints to PA (e.g., too tired to do more PA) −0.69 (−2.12, 0.75) - - -
Social level
Parental influence
Parental concerns about child’s PA/SB 1.87 (−0.05, 3.78) 3.19 (0.62, 5.76) - -
Parental constraints to child’s PA 0.74 (−1.36, 2.84) 1.29 (−0.55, 3.13) - -
Parent gets bored watching child playing in outdoor spaces −14.43 (−27.99, −0.86) - - -
Parent believes it’s important to be active as a family 6.08 (−10.86, 23.02) - - -
Parental self-efficacy to support PA 0.76 (−2.78, 4.30) 1.67 (−2.23, 5.58) - -
Parental self-efficacy to limit screen time −6.52 (−9.51, −3.54) −2.64 (−5.12, −0.16) - -
Parental health knowledge/beliefs of child’s PA - 0.22 (−3.67, 4.11) - -
Rules and boundaries
Parental rules to limit screen time −5.15 (−9.20, −1.11) −5.20 (−9.94, −0.47) - -
Parent allows child to play freely in backyard/street - −4.62 (−9.39, 0.16) - -
Social interaction and support
Maternal PA emotional support for child 2.14 (−1.47, 5.76) - −1.10 (−2.84, 0.63) -
Paternal PA emotional support for child 2.14 (−0.87, 5.14) - - -
Modelling of PA
Paternal time in PA (hours/week) - −0.62 (−2.29, 1.04) - -
Maternal TV viewing (hours/week) 2.27 (1.09, 3.46) 1.33 (−0.05, 2.70) - -
Paternal TV viewing (hours/week) 0.49 (−0.71, 1.69) 0.65 (−0.33, 1.63) - -
Maternal role modelling of PA (times/week) - 0.36 (−3.27, 4.00) - -
Paternal role modelling of PA (times/week) - 0.54 (−3.54, 4.61) - -
Physical environment level
Number of pieces of toys/ equipment to be physically active with at home (e.g., swings, slide) - 0.57 (−1.15, 2.29) - -
Number of features at home (e.g., front fence, covered outdoor areas) −2.51 (−9.95, 4.92) −2.34 (−9.40, 4.72) - -
Lives on a cul-de-sac 11.70 (−1.26, 24.66) - - -
Number of TVs at home 3.65 (−2.04, 9.34) 5.15 (−1.69, 11.99) - 2.45 (−0.79, 5.70)
TV in child’s bedroom −1.74 (−23.72, 20.23) 27.14 (−5.49, 59.77) - -
Neighbourhood playground suitability (e.g., equipment, shade, safety) 0.11 (−1.10, 1.32) −0.69 (−2.11, 0.73) −0.69 (−1.51, 0.12) -
Neighbourhood constraints to active transport (e.g., busy roads) - 0.14 (−1.29, 1.57) −0.26 (−0.96, 0.43) -
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, PA physical activity, SB sedentary behaviour, TV television
  2. Notes: aAll models adjusted for age, preschool/childcare attendance and clustering by centre of recruitment; bReported as % for binary/categorical variables and mean (SD) for continuous variables; cParents’ self-reported height and weight, calculated using WHO classifications; bolded data indicates significance (p < 0.05); - indicates variable not included in combined model