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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants in the Baden-Württemberg Study (2010)

From: Skipping breakfast is detrimental for primary school children: cross-sectional analysis of determinants for targeted prevention

  Missing Boys Girls Total
Values (n = 995) (n = 948) (n = 1,943)
Child characteristics
 Age, years [m (sd)]   7.09 (0.64) 7.06 (0.63) 7.08 (0.64)
 Migration background, n (%) 297 255 (30.9) 270 (32.9) 525 (31.9)
 BMIPERC, [m (sd)] 50 48.78 (27.87) 49.14 (27.92) 48.96 (27.89)
 Overweight, n (%) 50 54 (5.6) 54 (5.9) 108 (5.7)
 Obesity, n (%) 50 49 (5.1) 34 (3.7) 83 (4.4)
 Waist circumference, [m (sd)] 55 55.98 (5.83)***a 55.16 (5.90) 55.58 (5.88)
 WHtR, [m (sd)] 55 0.45 (0.04)* 0.45 (0.04) 0.45 (0.04)
 Abdominal obesity, n (%) 55 73 (7.5) 85 (9.2) 158 (8.4)
  ≥ 95th percentile for %body fat, n (%) 55 128 (13.2)***a 211 (22.9) 339 (18.0)
Parental characteristics
 Single parent, n (%) 265 82 (9.7) 95 (11.4) 177 (10.5)
 Tertiary family educational level, n (%) 215 262 (31.8) 261 (32.5) 523 (32.1)
 Household income ≤ €1,750, n (%) 452 101 (13.4) 106 (14.4) 207 (13.9)
 Overweight/obesity (mother or father), n (%) 332 532 (65.0) 542 (68.3) 1074 (66.7)
 Abdominal obesity (mother or father), n (%) 974 405 (82.7) 407 (85.0) 812 (83.8)
 Smoking (mother or father), n (%) 270 309 (36.9) 319 (38.2) 628 (37.5)
 Health awareness (mother or father), n (%) 343 541 (67.4) 539 (67.6) 1080 (67.5)
Health and lifestyle characteristics
 Skipping breakfast, n (%) 236 89 (10.4)** 134 (15.8) 223 (13.1)
 Soft drinks > 1/week, n (%) 241 219 (25.6) 197 (23.3) 416 (24.4)
 Playing outside > 60 min/day, n (%) 296 615 (73.8)*** 515 (63.3) 1130 (68.6)
 Physically active ≥ 4 days/week ≥ 60 min/day, n (%) 320 260 (31.7)*** 177 (22.1) 437 (26.9)
 Club sports > 1/week, n (%) 662 338 (52.0) 338 (53.6) 676 (52.8)
 Screen media > 1 h/day, n (%) 250 173 (20.4) 146 (17.3) 319 (18.8)
  1. NOTE. m mean, sd standard deviation, BMI body mass index, BMIPERC BMI percentiles, WHtR waist-to-height ratio
  2. aMann–Whitney-U test, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001