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Table 4 The 1982 cohort: crude and adjusted effects of cesarean section on fat mass index, BMI Z-score and height at age 30, overall and by sex. Adjusted effects obtained through linear regression. 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort, Brazil, 2012–13

From: Caesarean section and adiposity at 6, 18 and 30 years of age: results from three Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts

Type of delivery All (N = 3607) Males (N = 1754) Females (N = 1853)
Coeff. (CI 95%) Coeff. (CI 95%) Coeff. (CI 95%)
Fat mass index at age 30
 Crude effect p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
 C-section 0.68 (0.35;1.00) 0.58 (0.23;0.93) 0.90 (0.44;1.36)
 Adjusted (model 1)a p < 0.001 p = 0.021 p < 0.001
 C-section 0,66 (0.33;0.99) 0.41 (0.06;0.77) 1.10 (0.63;1.57)
 Adjusted (model 2)b p = 0.077 p = 0.621 p = 0.001
 C-section 0.32 (−0.03;0.68) 0.09 (−0.28;0.47) 0.82 (0.32;1.32)
 Adjusted (model 3)c p = 0.075 p = 0.619 p = 0.001
 C-section 0.32 (−0.03;0.68) 0.10 (−0.28;0.47) 0.82 (0.32;1.32)
BMI Z-score at age 30
 Crude effect p < 0.001 p = 0.012 p = 0.015
 C-section 0.13 (0.06;0.21) 0.12 (0.03;0.21) 0.14 (0.03;0.26)
 Adjusted (model 1)a p < 0.001 p = 0.065 p < 0.001
 C-section 0.15 (0.08;0.23) 0.09 (−0.01;0.18) 0.22 (0.10;0.34)
 Adjusted (model 2)b p = 0.021 p = 0.426 p = 0.018
 C-section 0.09 (0.01;0.17) 0.04 (−0.06;0.14) 0.15 (0.03;0.28)
 Adjusted (model 3)c p = 0.019 p = 0.415 p = 0.018
 C-section 0.09 (0.01;0.17) 0.04 (−0.06;0.14) 0.15 (0.03;0.28)
Height (cm) at age 30
 Crude effect p = 0.399 p = 0.527 p = 0.947
 C-section 0.29 (−0.39;0.97) 0.23 (−0.49;0.96) 0.02 (−0.62;0.67)
 Adjusted (model 1)a p = 0.383 p = 0.193 p = 0.054
 C-section −0.31 (−0.99;0.38) −0.47 (−1.18;0.24) −0.63 (−1.27;0.01)
 Adjusted (model 2)b p = 0.602 p = 0.150 p = 0.068
 C-section −0.21 (−0.96;0.55) −0.57 (−1.36;0.21) −0.65 (−1.35;0.05)
 Adjusted (model 3)c p = 0.560 p = 0.145 p = 0.053
 C-section −0.22 (−0.95;0.51) −0.56 (1.32;0.19) −0.67 (−1.34;0.01)
  1. aModel 1: adjusted for economic position at birth, maternal schooling, mother’s skin colour and financing of delivery
  2. bModel 2: model 1 + mother’s pre-gestational BMI (linear and quadratic), parity, mother’s age at birth and smoking during pregnancy
  3. cModel 3: model 2 + birth weight (birth length is not available for this cohort)