Skip to main content

Table 3 Association between women social support factors and exposure to at least one type of IPV during pregnancy (n = 1,116, if no any other indication)

From: Social support and intimate partner violence during pregnancy among women attending antenatal care in Moshi Municipality, Northern Tanzania

Variable No. of women (% of total) Exposure to at least one type of IPV (prevalence in %) OR (95% CI) Model 1a Adj. OR (95% CI) Model 2b Adj. OR (95% CI)
Talking to family
Talks to family of origin
 At least once a week 575 (51.5) 190 (33.0) 1.00   
 At least once a month 340 (30.5) 74 (21.8) 0.49 (0.33 – 0.72) 0.55 (0.38 - 0.80) 0.46 (0.26 – 0.82)
 Once a year or never 201 (18.0) 73 (36.3) 0.87 (0.62 – 1.21) - -
Talks to family of the partner
 At least once a week 522 (46.8) 163 (31.2) 1.0   
 At least once a month 349 (31.3) 82 (23.5) 0.51 (0.36 – 0.73) 0.75 (0.52 - 1.08) -
 Once a year or never 245 (22.0) 92 (37.6) 0.76 (0.55 – 1.04) - -
Perceived support from the family
Expect support from family of origin
 Yes 943 (845) 257 (27.3) 1.0   
 No 173 (15.5) 80 (46.2) 2.31 (1.66 – 3.21) 2.15 (1.39 – 3.32) 2.29 (1.31 – 3.99)
Expect support from family of the partner
 Yes 292 (26.2) 218 (26.5) 1.0   
 No 824 (73.8) 119 (40.8) 1.91 (1.45 – 2.53) 1.64 (1.14 – 2.28) 1.21 (0.81 – 1.83)
Group support
Attends association or organization
 Yes 160 (14.3) 57 (35.6) 1.0 - -
 No 956 (85.7) 280 (29.3) 0.75 (0.53 – 1.07)   
Practical support
Has someone who cares that she gets enough foodc
 Yes 888 (79.8) 259 (29.2) 1.0   
 No 225 (20.2) 78 (34.7) 1.29 (0.95 - 1.76) - -
Has someone to help on daily tasksc      
 Yes 649 (58.3) 200 (30.8) 1.0   
 No 464 (41.7) 137 (29.5) 0.94 (0.73 - 1.22) - -
Has someone to support during ANC visits
 Yes 871 (78.3) 249 (28.6) 1.0   
 No 242 (21.7) 88 (36.4) 1.43 (1.06 - 1.93) 0.90 (0.57 - 1.41) -
Has someone to help her financially when in needc
 Yes 1037 (93.2) 290 (28.0) 1.0   
 No 76 (6.8) 47 (61.8) 4.18 (2.58 - 6.76) 3.91 (2.05 - 7.46) 3.57 (1.85 – 6.90)
Emotional support
Has someone to share thoughts and worries withc
 Yes 1037 (93.3) 299 (28.8) 1.0   
 No 75 (6.7) 38 (50.7) 2.54 (1.58 - 4.07) 1.32 (0.60 - 2.91) -
Has someone to assist when making difficult decisionsc
 Yes 1036 (93.1) 301 (29.1) 1.0   
 No 77 (6.9) 36 (46.8) 2.14 (1.34 - 3.42) 1.18 (0.42 - 3.32) -
Has someone she can always trustc
 Yes 1049 (94.2) 308 (29.4) 1.0   
 No 64 (5.7) 29 (45.3) 1.99 (1.20 - 3.32) 1.41 (0.48 - 4.13) -
  1. aModel 1 includes all factors with p value of <0.05 in the crude results
  2. bModel 2 includes additional adjustments for maternal age, level of education, occupation, unplanned pregnancy, any history of adverse pregnancy outcome and any alcohol consumption during pregnancy
  3. cNumbers do not add up to the total because of missing values