Skip to main content

Table 4 Differences in psychosocial determinants according to stage of change

From: Psychosocial determinants of HIV testing across stages of change in Spanish population: a cross-sectional national survey

Psychosocial determinants Stages of change  
Lack of awareness Decision not to act Decision to act Action Maintenance Abandonment F(df)
M ± SD (%)ª  
Perceived riska 1.67 ± .70 1.69 ± .77 1.94 ± .74 1.73 ± .65 2.05 ± .86 1.72 ± .71 5.43 (5, 1463)***
Underestimation of risk of HIV infection a 2.58 ± 1.07 2.97 ± 1.07 2.22 ± 1.08 2.39 ± 1.1 2.42 ± 1.13 2.55 ± 1.10 8.66 (5, 1457)***
Invulnerability due to stereotypesa 2.30 ± 1.13 2.74 ± 1.14 1.87 ± 1.04 1.98 ± 1.08 1.91 ± 1.16 2.08 ± .96 14.9 (5, 1464)***
Perceived threata 3.24 ± .94 3.16 ± .94 3.31 ± .92 3.20 ± 1 3.05 ± 1.08 3.19 ± .99 .80 (5, 1462)
Perceived severitya 3.19 ± .83 3.19 ± .76 3.28 ± .75 3.13 ± .83 3.24 ± .77 3.08 ± .81 .65 (5, 1463)
Perceived mortalitya 2.26 ± 1.03 2.34 ± 1.12 2.28 ± 1.08 2 ± .95 1.96 ± 1.01 1.92 ± 1.02 4.89 (5, 1463) ***
Perceived stigmaa 3.11 ± .84 2.94 ± .85 3.03 ± .87 3.21 ± .83 3.09 ± .72 3.10 ± .82 2.62 (5, 1466)*
Self-efficacy to be testeda 3.39 ± .89 3.10 ± 1.12 3.43 ± .78 3.83 ± .44 3.91 ± .44 3.74 ± .60 25.21 (5, 1458)
Self-efficacy to deal with a positive diagnosisa 2.97 ± .85 2.96 ± .94 3.14 ± .87 3.11 ± .78 3.32 ± .77 2.92 ± .84 3.53 (5, 1418)**
Social proximity to tested peoplea 1.23 ± .47 1.15 ± .40 1.59 ± .66 2.02 ± .86 2.36 ± .99 1.73 ± .90 108.78 (5, 1406)***
Motivation to comply with referentsa 3.76 ± .57 3.56 ± .81 3.72 ± .62 3.84 ± .48 3.92 ± .32 3.89 ± .38 7.24 (5, 1461)***
Benefits of the testb 3.81 ± .34 3.67 ± .52 3.90 ± .25 3.87 ± .33 3.91 ± .22 3.93 ± .20 10.37(5, 1470)***
Instrumental attitudec 8.11 ± 2.28 7.64 ± 2.81 8.70 ± 1.63 8.96 ± 1.81 8.91 ± 2.06 9.26 ± 1.86 12.54 (5, 1466)***
Emotional attitudec 3.98 ± 3.14 3.77 ± 3.47 5.05 ± 3.05 4.80 ± 3.01 5.01 ± 3.47 4.39 ± 3.05 5.51 (5, 1460)***
  1. * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001
  2. aThe item has a range of 4 points.bThe scale has a range of 4 points; α = .70. cThe scale has a range of 10 points