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Table 3 Signal for taking action and perceived barriers to testing

From: Psychosocial determinants of HIV testing across stages of change in Spanish population: a cross-sectional national survey

  Percent 95% CI
Reasons to be tested (signal for action)1,a
 It just seemed a good idea 56.4 [51.9, 60.9]
 The doctor or other health professional suggested getting tested 33.2 [28.9, 37.5]
 Is worried about the possibility of being infected 16.4 [13.1, 19.7]
 The partner or someone important has suggested getting tested or has asked whether he/she has been tested 9.6 [6.9, 12.3]
 Felt ill and decided, or has decided, to get a general checkup 19.6 [16, 23.2]
 Had doubts about whether a partner could have HIV or any other sexually transmitted infection 12.3 [9.3, 15.3]
 The doctor or nurse told him/her that they had been tested because it was just one more test of the health checkup 51.1 [46.6, 55.6]
 Does not know/Does not respond 4 [2.2, 5.8]
Perceived barriers to testing2,b
 Related to the health system
  The doctor has not recommended taking the test 81.4 [79.1–83.7]
  Would feel ashamed to talk about the test with the doctor 12.2 [10.3–14.1]
  Worried about what the doctor might think if he/she requests getting tested 9.3 [7.6–11]
Related stigma
 Concerned that someone may expose him/her 25.2 [22.6–27.8]
 Is afraid his/her name might appear in public records 29.3 [26.6–32]
 Concerned that loved ones will reject him/her 42.9 [40–45.8]
Structural barriers
 Has no time to go to take the test 13.6 [11.6–15.6]
 Does not know where to go to take the test 40.1 [37.2–43]
 The place where the test is done is far away 7.47 [5.8–9]
  1. CI Confidence interval
  2. 1 N = 470 (includes people at the stages of deciding to act, action, and abandonment)
  3. 2 N = 1044 (includes people at the stages of lack of awareness, deciding not to act, and abandonment)
  4. aItems have a dichotomous response. Percentage of people who respond “Yes.” b Items have a 4-point response range. Percentage or people who state that they agree “pretty much” or they “strongly agree”