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Table 3 Factors associated with incomplete child immunization identified by multilevel multivariate logistics regression models

From: Incomplete childhood immunization in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis of individual and contextual factors

Variable Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 4d
  aOR (CrI) aOR (CrI) aOR (CrI) aOR (CrI)
Measure of association
 Individual-level factors
  Maternal age
   15–24   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   25–34   0.59(0.48–0.72) 0.61(0.50–0.74) 0.63(0,50–0.79)
   35+   0.51(0.38–0.67) 0.53(0.40–0.69) 0.55(0.40–0.74)
  Maternal education
   No education   2.68(1.99–3.50) 2.12(1.58–2.78) 2.14(1.59–2.86)
   Primary   1.413(1.13–1.75) 1.39(1.11–1.72) 1.42(1.14–1.76)
   Secondary/higher   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
  Wealth index
   Poor   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Middle   0.57(0.43–0.75) 0.72(0.52–0.99) 0.76(0.55–1.03)
   Rich   0.29(0.20–0.39) 0.44(0.31–0.64) 0.48(0.32–0.69)
   Marital status     
   Never married   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Ever married   1.37(0.94–2.08) 1.30(0.83–1.89) 1.38(0.77–2.27)
  Maternal occupation
   Not working   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Working   0.93(0.77–1.14) 1.02(0.83–1.22) 1.02(0.83–1.23)
  Sex of child
   Male (vs female)   0.93(0.78–1.09) 0.92(0.78–1.08) 0.92(0.78–1.09)
  Birth order
   1st -3rd order   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   4th -6th order   1.51(1.24–1.85) 1.56(1.27–1.90) 1.53(1.24–1.86)
   7th + order   1.49(1.07–2.03) 1.50(1.06–2.07) 1.46(1.02–2.02)
  Size of child at birth
   Large   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Average   1.11(0.92–1.32) 1.10(0.93–1.29) 1.13(0.94–1.35)
   Small   1.30(0.97–1.68) 1.28(0.98–1.64) 1.32(1.002–1.72)
  Exposure to media
   Never exposed   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Exposed   0.92(0.75–1.14) 0.99(0.79–1.24) 1.03(0.79–1.31)
   Antenatal care     
   Never attended   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Attended   0.45(0.37–0.54) 0.48(0.38–0.58) 0.49(0.39–0.60)
  Place of delivery
   Home   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Health facility   0.57(0.46–0.69) 0.61(0.49–0.75) 0.62(0.51–0.74)
 Community-level factors
  Residence
   Urban(vs Rural)    0.67(0.52–0.84) 0.66(0.50–0.82)
   Getting to health facility     
   Not a problem    1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   A problem    1.25(0.99–1.54) 1.28(1.02–1.57)
   Ethnicity diversity index    0.99(0.95–1.03) 0.99(0.95–1.03)
   Socioeconomic disadvantage     
   Tertile 1(least disadvantaged)    1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Tertile 2    1.53(1.17–2.02) 1.44(1.09–1.88)
   Tertile 3 (most disadvantaged)    3.69(2.09–6.50) 2.93(1.60–4.71)
 State-level factors
  Socioeconomic disadvantage
   Tertile 1(least disadvantaged)     1 (reference)
   Tertile 2     0.88(0.57–1.28)
   Tertile 3 (most disadvantaged)     2.69(1.37–4.73)
Measures of variation
  State level     
   Variance (SE) 2.270(1.330–3.730) 0.388(0.179–0.740) 0.282(0.113–0.567) 0.205(0.081–0.412)
   Explained variation (%) Reference 82.9 87.6 91.0
   ICC (%) 31.80 8.76 6.36 4.72
   MOR 4.18 1.81 1.66 1.54
  Community level     
   Variance (SE) 1.578(1.216–1.979) 0.752(0.512–1.013) 0.863(0.610–1.144) 0.838(0.598–1.104)
   Explained variation (%) Reference 52.3 45.3 46.9
   ICC (%) 53.91 25.74 25.82 24.06
   MOR 3.30 2.28 2.42 2.39
  Model fit statistics
   Bayesian DIC 4791 4581 4542 4540
  1. Abbreviations: SE standard error, DIC deviation information criterion, CrI credible interval, ICC intra-cluster correlation, MOR median odds ratio
  2. aModel 1 is the empty model, a baseline model with no independent variable
  3. bModel 2 is adjusted for age, education, wealth status of family, marital status, occupation, sex of child, birth order, size of child at birth, exposure to media, antenatal care and place of delivery
  4. cModel 3 is additionally adjusted for residency, getting to health facility, ethnicity diversity index and community socioeconomic factors
  5. dModel 4 is additionally adjusted for state-level socioeconomic factors