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Table 5 Odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals from adjusted logistic regression between environmental factors and physical activity in urban and rural participants in the overall sample

From: Association between perceived built environmental attributes and physical activity among adults in South Africa

  Physical activity outcomes
Variablesa LTPA WL TRPA TPA
Environmental factors (agree vs disagree)
 Land use mix-access
  I can do most of my shopping at local stores 4.26* (1.00-18.06) 1.38 (0.76-2.51) 0.87 (0.35-2.16) 0.73(0.39-1.38)
  There are many places to go within easy walking distance of my home 0.46 (0.14-1.84) 1.01 (0.54-1.90) 0.81 (0.27-2.46) 0.93 (0.46-1.87)
  It is easy to walk to a transit stop (bus, train) from my home 3.72 (0.85-16.28) 2.44*** (1.48-4.02) 2.58 (0.77-.8.66) 2.12*(1.17-3.84)
Street connectivity
 The distance between intersections in my neighborhood is usually short 1.01 (0.27-3.80) 1.45 (0.75-2.80) 3.53 (0.96-12.91) 0.68 (0.34-1.38)
 There are many four-way intersections in my neighborhood 0.85 (0.22-3.21) 0.59 (0.31-1.14) 4.54** (1.54-13.43) 1.85 (0.93-3.65)
 There are many alternative routes in my neighborhood 2.37 (0.63-8.92) 0.82 (0.48-1.40) 1.35 (0.49-3.74) 0.95 (0.51-1.76)
Infrastructure for walking and cycling
 There are sidewalks on most of the streets in my neighborhood 0.71 (0.17-2.89) 2.36** (1.25-4.44) 3.75* (1.06-13.27) 1.13 (0.56-2.27)
 The sidewalks in my neighborhood are well maintained 0.52 (0.15-1.81) 1.12 (0.55-2.27) 0.58 (0.19-1.73) 4.69*** (2.20-10.02)
 There is a grass that separates the streets from the sidewalks 1.85 (0.71-4.85) 0.83 (0.45-1.54) 0.96 (0.42-2.23) 1.30 (0.74-2.28)
Aesthetics
 Trees give shade for the sidewalks in my neighborhood. 1.07 (0.37-3.05) 2.14* (1.19-3.85) 1.02 (0.38-2.78) 1.11 (0.59-2.09)
 There are many interesting things to look at while walking 0.72 (0.24-2.22) 1.93* (1.07-3.46) 3.84* (1.35-10.93) 0.92 (0.49-1.73)
 My neighborhood is generally free from litter. 1.50 (0.65-3.45) 1.34 (0.85-2.11) 1.56 (0.75-3.23) 1.04 (0.64-1.68)
Safety from traffic
 Too much traffic along the street I live in makes it difficult walk 0.28* (0.09-0.89) 2.17* (1.21-3.91) 0.76 (0.28-2.06) 0.93 (0.50-1.74)
 Too much traffic along nearby streets makes it difficult walk 1.28 (0.46-3.58) 1.05 (0.54-2.03) 0.89 (0.36-2.23) 0.90 (0.49-1.66)
 The crosswalks help walkers feel safe crossing busy streets 0.64 (0.20-1.98) 0.73 (0.38-1.43) 4.11** (1.47-11.50) 1.08 (0.56-2.07)
Safety from crime
 My neighborhood streets are well lit at night 0.70 (0.23-2.18) 2.01* (1.04-3.89) 1.52 (0.43-5.38) 2.50 (1.24-5.04)
 The crime rate makes it unsafe to go on walks during the day 0.44 (0.17-1.17) 0.87 (0.49-1.52) 0.89 (0.34-2.36) 1.10 (0.61-1.99)
 The crime rate makes it unsafe to go on walks at night. 1.42 (0.46-4.41) 0.91 (0.54-1.51) 1.70 (0.57-5.04) 0.83 (0.46-1.52
  1. LTPA Leisure time physical activity, WL Walking for leisure, TRPA Transport related physical activity, TPA Total physical activity;a adjusted for age, sex, site and the interaction term of site with each of the predictors of interest; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001
  2. Bold is significant p value