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Table 4 Multilevel logistic regressions predicting factors associated with appropriate treatment for childhood diarrhea in Nyanza Province, Kenya

From: Community unit performance: factors associated with childhood diarrhea and appropriate treatment in Nyanza Province, Kenya

Individual variables Model 1 Model 2
Odds ratio 95% CI Odds ratio 95% CI
Child’s gender
  Female Ref.   Ref.  
  Male 1.013 0.693–1.482 0.998 0.684–1.456
Child’s age (continuous from 0 to 4) 0.883 0.772–1.008 0.889 0.780–1.013
Relationship to household head
  Biological child Ref.   Ref.  
  Grandchild 1.660 0.814–3.386 1.758 0.864–3.577
  Other 1.462 0.614–3.481 1.369 0.578–3.242
Household head’s gender
  Female Ref.   Ref.  
  Male 1.125 0.706–1.792 1.118 0.708–1.764
Age group (years)
   < 30 Ref. Ref. Ref.  
  30–34 1.385 0.788–2.431 1.374 0.796–2.372
  35–39 1.358 0.721–2.557 1.325 0.711–2.467
  40–49 1.062 0.535–2.107 1.005 0.510–1.984
   ≥ 50 0.809 0.372–1.760 0.752 0.346–1.633
Education level
  No education/Primary level Ref.   Ref.  
  Secondary level or higher 0.972 0.636–1.485 0.989 0.648–1.509
Household wealth index
  Poorer Ref.   Ref.  
  Poor 1.506 0.838–2.704 1.475 0.836–2.603
  Middle 1.937* 1.018–3.686 1.923* 1.018–3.631
  Rich 1.663 0.912–3.032 1.587 0.867–2.905
  Richer 1.598 0.833–3.067 1.594 0.760–3.344
Number of household members
  5 or fewer than 5 Ref.   Ref.  
  More than 5 0.968 0.615–1.525 1.011 0.642–1.591
Number of children under five
  One Ref.   Ref.  
  More than 1 1.212 0.790–1.859 1.193 0.781–1.823
Paying attention to the child
  Less attention Ref.   Ref.  
  More attention 0.809 0.557–1.177 0.815 0.564–1.178
Playing with the child in the past three days
  No playing Ref.   Ref.  
  Playing at least once within the past 3 days 1.228 0.727–2.076 1.205 0.717–2.027
Severity of diarrhea
  Without blood Ref.   Ref.  
  With blood 2.821*** 1.499–5.311 2.813*** 1.508–5.251
Possession of at least one media device
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 0.641 0.338–1.216 0.650 .347–1.217
Community Variables
Area
  Urban    Ref.  
  Rural    1.117 0.551–2.265
Performance of CHWs
  None/Poor    Ref.  
  Middle    1.655* 1.080–2.538
  High    1.938** 1.201–3.127
Community Level Variance 0.516 (0.224) 0.402
Log likelihood -484.54 -479
Likelihood-ratio test (p value) 0.030 0.027
  1. * ≤ 0.05 ** ≤ 0.01 *** ≤ 0.001