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Table 3 Multilevel logistic regressions predicting factors associated with prevalence of diarrhea among children younger than five years of age in Nyanza Province, Kenya

From: Community unit performance: factors associated with childhood diarrhea and appropriate treatment in Nyanza Province, Kenya

Individual variables Model 1 Model 2
Odds ratio 95% CI Odds ratio 95% CI
Child’s gender
  Female Ref.   Ref.  
  Male 1.424*** 1.189–1.706 1.429*** 1.192–1.714
Child’s age (continuous from 0 to 4) 0.712*** 0.668–0.759 0.714*** 0.669–0.761
Relationship to household head
  Biological child Ref.   Ref.  
  Grandchild 0.979 0.672–1.427 0.992 0.681–1.446
  Other 1.508 0.976–2.328 1.505 0.978–2.317
Household head’s gender
  Female Ref.   Ref.  
  Male 1.003 0.810–1.241 1.001 0.808–1.240
Age group (years)
   < 30 Ref.   Ref.  
  30–34 0.826 0.624–1.094 0.833 0.630–1.100
  35–39 0.719* 0.534–0.968 0.718* 0.534–0.967
  40–49 0.729 0.517–1.029 0.738 0.523–1.041
   ≥ 50 0.803 0.542–1.189 0.814 0.550–1.204
Education level
  No education/Primary level Ref.   Ref.  
  Secondary level or higher 0.895 0.727–1.101 0.911 0.740–1.121
Household wealth index
  Poorer Ref.   Ref.  
  Poor 1.148 0.874–1.509 1.134 0.862–1.491
  Middle 0.964 0.723–1.285 0.946 0.709–1.264
  Rich 0.906 0.676–1.214 0.858 0.637–1.155
  Richer 1.237 0.885–1.730 1.045 0.723–1.510
Number of household members
  5 or fewer than 5 Ref.   Ref.  
  More than 5 0.933 0.748–1.165 0.949 0.759–1.186
Number of children under five
  One Ref.    
  More than 1 1.159 0.951–1.413 1.154 0.946–1.407
Paying attention to the child
  Less attention Ref.    
  More attention 0.690*** 0.577–0.824 0.693*** 0.579–0.828
Playing with the child in the past three days
  No playing Ref.   Ref.  
  Playing at least once within the past 3 days 1.084 0.844–1.391 1.076 0.838–1.381
Water source for drinking
  Unimproved Ref.   Ref.  
  Improved 0.956 0.775–1.179 0.941 0.761–1.164
Water treatment
  No treatment/Inadequate Ref.   Ref.  
  Adequate treatment 0.819 0.669–1.004 0.799* 0.651–0.980
Hand-washing facility
  Not available Ref.   Ref.  
  Available 0.753 0.378–1.500 0.741 0.368–1.492
Possession of refrigerator
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 0.649 0.290–1.451 0.611 0.266–1.403
Community Variables
Area
  Urban    Ref.  
  Rural    0.666* 0.445–0.996
Performance of CHWs in the CU
  None/Poor    Ref. 0.941–1.487
  Middle    1.183 1.003–1.810
  High    1.347*  
Community Level Variance and covariance of random effects 0.294 (0.065) 0.262 (0.061)
Log likelihood -2038.89 -2033.98
Likelihood-ratio test (p value) ≤0.001 0.019
  1. * ≤ 0.05 *** ≤ 0.001