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Table 1 Description of survey scales and sample questions

From: Participatory science and innovation for improved sanitation and hygiene: process and outcome evaluation of project SHINE, a school-based intervention in Rural Tanzania

Scale Number of items Sample questions (responses on 5 point Likert Scales) Cronbach’s alpha
Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices
 Knowledge 7 I believe that washing hands with water ONLY after using the bathroom is enough to protect from disease 0.426
I think that if someone does NOT wash their hands with water and soap before eating it can lead to serious diseases
 Perceived Severity 1 If I got a worm infection, I would find this very serious n/a
 Perceived importance of washing 7 How important is it to wash hands with water and soap/mud/ash before eating 0.893
How important is it to treat water before washing/bathing
 Frequency of washing 8 How frequently do you wash your hands with water and soap/mud/ash before eating 0.847
How frequently do you wash your hands with water and soap/mud/ash after using the toilet/latrine
 Frequency of unhygienic behaviour 7 In the past 3 months, how often did you eat food without washing your hands first 0.798
In the past 3 months, how often did you defecate outside and not use a latrine when one was available
Self-Efficacy
 Self-efficacy to wash 2 How difficult is it to wash using soap/mud/ash after using the toilet/latrine 0.715
 Intention to wash 2 How likely is it that you will use soap/mud/ash next time you use the latrine 0.736
 intention to use toilet 1 How likely is it that you will use a toilet/latrine next time you need one, if one is available n/a
Science interest and motivation
 Pros towards science 9 The science I learn is relevant to my life 0.867
In science, I think it is important to learn to solve problems
 Cons towards science 3 I think science is boring 0.678
I think that the science I learn about in school is not helpful in everyday life
Communication
 Communication: hygiene 5 How often do you discuss washing hands after urinating and defecating with family and friends 0.776
How often do you discuss washing fruits and vegetables with family and friends
 Student engagement in the classroom 4 In my class, teachers encourage students to participate in health education 0.752
In my class, students are encouraged to ask questions in health education classes
 Student engagement in the community 2 In my community, young people are involved in planning local health education and promotion programs 0.704