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Table 1 Baseline sample characteristics, stratified by reporting health problems associated with crack smoking in the past 6 months among crack smokers in Vancouver, Canada (n = 1718)

From: Declining rates of health problems associated with crack smoking during the expansion of crack pipe distribution in Vancouver, Canada

Characteristic Experienced crack related health problemsa Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
p-value
Yes
n (%)
587 (34.2)
No
n (%)
1131 (65.8)
Crack pipe acquisition source
Health service points only 74 (12.6) 167 (14.8) 0.86 (0.64–1.16) 0.318
A mix of health service points and other sources 58 (9.9) 81 (7.1) 1.39 (0.97–1.98) 0.070
Other sources only 455 (77.5) 883 (78.1)   
Female sex 235 (40.0) 367 (32.4) 1.39 (1.13–1.71) 0.002
Age (median, IQR) 41 (34–47) 42 (36–48) 0.99 (0.97–1.00) 0.017
Caucasian 334 (56.9) 684 (60.5) 0.86 (0.70–1.06) 0.152
Completed < high school 289 (49.2) 578 (51.1) 0.93 (0.76–1.13) 0.456
DTES residencya 438 (74.6) 809 (71.5) 1.17 (0.93–1.47) 0.174
Homelessa 229 (39.0) 413 (36.5) 1.11 (0.91–1.37) 0.305
≥ Daily crack smokinga 343 (58.4) 458 (40.5) 2.06 (1.68–2.53) <0.001
≥ Daily non-injection meth usea 4 (0.7) 17 (1.5) 0.45 (0.15–1.34) 0.142
Binge non-injection drug usea 225 (38.3) 290 (25.6) 1.80 (1.46–2.23) <0.001
Shared crack pipea 473 (80.6) 719 (63.6) 2.37 (1.87–3.01) <0.001
Rushed public crack smokinga 199 (33.9) 281 (24.8) 1.57 (1.26–1.95) <0.001
Drug dealinga 255 (43.4) 368 (32.5) 1.59 (1.30–1.96) <0.001
Sex worka 122 (20.8) 160 (14.1) 1.61 (1.24–2.09) <0.001
A victim of violencea 188 (32.0) 218 (19.3) 1.99 (1.58–2.50) <0.001
Incarcerationa 124 (21.1) 182 (16.1) 1.40 (1.09–1.81) 0.009
HIV positive 240 (40.9) 458 (40.5) 1.02 (0.83–1.24) 0.876
  1. PWID People who inject drugs, CI confidence interval, IQR interquartile range
  2. DTES Downtown Eastside
  3. a Denotes activities in the previous 6 months