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Table 4 Associations between local descriptive insufficient fruit intake norms, food resource availability, and 10-year change in HbA1c

From: Local descriptive body weight and dietary norms, food availability, and 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian population-based biomedical cohort

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Predictors β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Insufficient fruit intake norm and fast-food outlet availability   
 Time (in years – not standardised) 0.0337 (0.0307–0.0367)**** 0.0337 (0.0306–0.0367)**** 0.0337 (0.0307–0.0368)**** 0.0335 (0.0304–0.0365)****
 Insufficient fruit intake norm 0.0008 (−0.0189–0.0205) 0.0002 (−0.0197–0.0200) 0.0106 (−0.0104–0.0315) 0.0111 (−0.0097–0.0320)
 Insufficient fruit intake norm*time 0.0055 (0.0025–0.0085)*** 0.0055 (0.0025–0.0086)*** 0.0055 (0.0025–0.0086)*** 0.0055 (0.0025–0.0086)***
 Fast-food outlets - −0.0053 (−0.0252–0.0146) −0.0095 (−0.0293–0.0103) −0.0096 (−0.0293–0.0101)
 Fast-food outlets*time - 0.0001 (−0.0030–0.0033) 0.0001 (−0.0030–0.0033) 0.0001 (−0.0031–0.0033)
 Insufficient fruit intake norm*fast-food outlets - - - −0.0062 (−0.0271–0.0147)
 Insufficient fruit intake norm*fast-food outlets*time - - - −0.0020 (−0.0054–0.0015)
 Area-level education (% university degree) - - 0.0296 (0.0077–0.0514)** 0.0306 (0.0089–0.0524)**
 AIC 4420.8 4424.5 4419.7 4421.4
 BIC 4462.3 4471.2 4469.0 4475.9
 Adjusted ICC (participants) 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.60
 Adjusted ICC (State Suburb) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
Insufficient fruit intake norm and healthful food resource availability   
 Time (in years – not standardised) 0.0337 (0.0307–0.0367)**** 0.0338 (0.0307–0.0368)**** 0.0338 (0.0307–0.0369)**** 0.0337 (0.0306–0.0367)****
 Insufficient fruit intake norm 0.0008 (−0.0189–0.0205) 0.0020 (−0.0178–0.0218) 0.0123 (−0.0087–0.0334) 0.0115 (−0.0096–0.0326)
 Insufficient fruit intake norm*time 0.0055 (0.0025–0.0085)*** 0.0053 (0.0023–0.0084)*** 0.0053 (0.0023–0.0084)*** 0.0052 (0.0021–0.0082)**
 Healthful food resources - 0.0104 (−0.0093–0.0302) 0.0107 (−0.0087–0.0300) 0.0078 (−0.0121–0.0278)
 Healthful food resources*time - −0.0015 (−0.0046–0.0016) −0.0015 (−0.0049–0.0017) −0.0018 (−0.0051–0.0015)
 Insufficient fruit intake norm*healthful food resources - - - −0.0115 (−0.0320–0.0090)
 Insufficient fruit intake norm*healthful food resources*time - - - −0.0011 (−0.0045–0.0022)
 Area-level education (% university degree) - - 0.0280 (0.0063–0.0496)** 0.0300 (0.0083–0.0517)**
 AIC 4420.8 4423.3 4419.1 4420.7
 BIC 4462.3 4470.0 4468.4 4475.2
 Adjusted ICC (participants) 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59
 Adjusted ICC (State Suburb) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
  1. All models adjusted for individual covariates: age (at baseline), sex, marital status, education, employment status, and smoking status; standardised (β) coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CI); *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001; n = 1945