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Table 1 Characteristics and results of the studies found to meet criteria for adequate quality

From: The contribution from psychological, social, and organizational work factors to risk of disability retirement: a systematic review with meta-analyses

Authors, year publication, Country (subjects studied) Exposures investigated (instruments used) Employee groups (types of work), number of subjects Outcomes (definition of disability), number of cases Summary (with OR, RR, HR) Control for confounders
Ahola et al., 2011, Finland [48] Weekly hours; job strain (JCQ) (no test of control and demands); team climate (HOQ); job insecurity General working population, n = 3164 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 208 Weekly hours (>40): OR = 0.78 (0.46–1.31)
High job strain: OR = 1.78 (1.10–2.87)
Poor team climate: OR = 1.25 (0.87–1.79)
Job insecurity: OR = 1.23 (0.90–1.69)
Sex, age, mental and physical health, marital status, occupational grade, work-related factors, health behavior
Appelberg et al., 1996, Finland [12] Interpersonal conflict at work General working population, n = 15,348 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 364 Women: interpersonal conflict: RR = 1.56 (1.01–2.39)
Men: interpersonal conflict: RR = 1.15 (0.74–1.81)
Sex, age, social class, general health status
Blekesaune et al., 2005, Norway [75] Job stress (two single items); Decision authority (two single items) (job exposure matrix, no validated instruments) General working population, n = 19,114 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 1257 Men
Job stress: logit = 0.08 (p > 0.05)
Low autonomy: logit = 0.11 (p < 0.05)
Women
Job stress: logit = −0.05 (p > 0.05)
Low autonomy: logit = −0.08 (p > 0.05)
Age, sex, marital status, income, physical job strain
Brage et al., 2007, Norway [61] Organizational job stress; psychological job stress General working population, n = 1152 Low back disability, defined as long term sickness absence (>56 days), rehabilitation allowance or disability awards, registry, n = 131 Organizational job stress: RR = 1.18 (0.97–1.43)
Psychological job stress: RR = 1.17 (0.97–1.43)
Sex, age, marital status, education, life-style, psychosocial factors, emotional distress, work-related factors
Canivet et al., 2012, Sweden [54] Job demands (JCQ), decision latitude (JCQ), job strain (JCQ), job support (Swedish version of JCQ) Middle-aged general working population, n = 3359 women & 3181 men Disability pension awards, registry, n = 672 women & 477men Men
High strain: HR = 1.9 (1.4–2.7)
High demands: HR = 1.7 (1.3–2.2)
Low decision latitude: HR = 1.4 (1.1–1.9)
Low support: HR = 1.3 (1.1–1.6)
Women
High strain: HR = 2.1 (1.6–2.7)
High demands: HR = 1.8 (1.5–2.2)
Low decision latitude: HR = 1.4 (1.1–1.8)
Low support: HR = 1.2 (1.03–1.4)
Sex, age, health status, occupational class, marital status, economical situation, alcohol consumption, smoking, BMI
Christensen et al., 2008, Denmark [70] Decision authority (single item); information; variation in work General working population, n = 8298 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 447 Men:
Low decision authority: HR = 1.82 (1.26–2.63)
Low variation in work: HR = 1.75 (1.21–2.53)
Low information: HR = 0.96 (0.65–1.43)
Women:
Low decision authority: HR = 1.41 (1.02–1.96)
Low variation in work: HR = 1.40 (1.06–1.84)
Low information: RR = 1.34 (0.95–1.89)
Age, sex, smoking, BMI, ergonomic work environment exposures
Clausen et al., 2014, Denmark [76] Influence at work (four items), Quality of leadership (four items), Work pace (single item), Quantitative demands (single item) All items from COPSOQ General working population, n = 40,554 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 929 Influence at work (ref = high)
Medium HR = 0.95 (0.85–1.13)
Low HR = 1.28 (1.05–1.55)
Quality of leadership (ref = high)
Medium HR = 0.87 (0.73–1.03)
Low HR = 0.91 (0.76–1.11)
Work pace (ref = low)
Medium HR = 0.90 (0.71–1.14)
High HR = 1.06 (0.84–1.34)
Quantitative demands (ref = low)
Medium HR = 0.82 (0.69–0.97)
High HR = 0.93 (0.77–1.12)
Interaction effects
Influence at work*Quantitative demands p = 0.65
Influence at work*Work pace p = 0.69
Quality of leadership*Quantitative demands p< 0.01
Quality of leadership *Work pace p< 0.01
Age, sex, smoking, occupational group, psychosocial work conditions
Claussen et al., 2009, Norway [56] Job control (decision authority); shift work General working population, n = 9195 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 498 Job control: OR = 2.07 (1.71–2.71)
Shift work: OR = 1.07 (0.71–1.57)
Job strain: OR = 1.17 (0.96–1.42)
Sex, age, income, occupation, general health, mental distress
Claussen et al., 2009, Norway [57] Job control (decision authority); shift work General working population, n = 9195 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 498 Job control: OR = 1.82 (1.35–2.44)
Shift work: OR = 1.07 (0.71–1.61)
Job strain: OR = 1.17 (0.96–1.42)
Sex, age, ethnic group, income, occupation, general health, mental distress
Falkstedt et al., 2014, Sweden [77] Job control (job exposure matrix–decision authority/skill discretion0) Cohort of all Swedish children born in 1948 and 1953, men n = 7920/women n = 7191 Disability pension awards, registry, men n = 811/women n = 1372 Men
Job control (ref: high)
Medium-High HR = 1.64 (1.35–1.98)
Medium-Low HR = 2.01 (1.64–2.47)
Low HR = 2.26 1.87–2.73)
Women
Job control (ref: high)
Medium-High HR = 1.27 (1.02–1.55)
Medium-Low HR = 1.26 (1.02–1.58)
Low HR = 1.85 (1.50–2.28)
Sex, age
Friis et al., 2008, Denmark [52] Working schedule; work speed/pressure; busy at work; influence at work (single item) All Danish nurses, n = 12,028 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 689 Working schedule (ref = day)
Evening work: HR = 1.51 (1.21–1.89)
Night work: HR = 1.45 (1.11–1.91)
Shift work: HR = 0.94 (0.73–1.20)
Busy at work (ref = almost always)
Often/sometimes: HR = 0.91 (0.70–1.19)
Not often/never: HR = 0.86 (0.63–1.18)
Work speed/pressure: HR = 1.10 (0.94–1.29)
Influence at work (major): HR = 1.39 (1.17–1.67)
Sex, age, working area, psychical demands, leisure time physical activity, BMI, alcohol, smoking, marital status and spouse’s income, income, place of residence
Hagen et al., 2002, Norway [58] Excessive job demands, authority to plan own work, concentration and attention General working population, n = 34,754 Disability pension awards due to back pain, registry, n = 715 None significant results in the fully adjusted model (fully adjusted estimates not shown) Sex, age, occupational factors, general health status, health behavior, psychological and social variables
Hagen et al., 2006, Norway [74] Concentration and attention; Stress and tension; Authority to plan own work (single item) General working population, n = 38,426 Disability pension awards due to back disease, registry, n = 4146 Concentration and attention (ref = almost never)
Fairly infrequently HR = 1.2 (0.8–1.8)
Fairly often HR = 1.6 (1.1–2.4)
Nearly always HR = 2.6 (1.6–4.1)
Stress and tension (ref = not at all)
Not much HR = 0.7 (0.5–0.9)
A good deal HR = 0.8 (0.6–1.0)
Almost all the time HR = 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
Authority to plan own work (ref = almost all the time)
A good deal HR = 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
Not much HR = 1.1 (0.9–1.5)
Not at all HR = 1.5 (1.3–2.1)
Sex, age
Hinkka et al., 2013, Finland [59] Shift work, work control (single item; decision authority), opportunities for mental growth, support from supervisor, feedback from supervisor Random sample of civil service employees, n = 937 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 44 Shift work (ref = daytime)
Shift or period work: HR = 3.64 (1.66–7.99)
Part-time work: HR = 2.29 (0.48–10.95)
Work control (ref = low)
Moderate: HR = 0.68 (0.32–1.45)
High: HR = 0.25 (0.07–0.87)
Mental growth (ref = rather or very little)
Somewhat: HR = 0.89 (0.41–1.93)
Rather or very much: HR = 1.07 (0.43–2.68)
Support (ref = almost never or seldom)
Sometimes HR = 0.99 (0.47–2.11)
Rather or very often: HR = 0.39 (0.15–1.02)
Feedback (ref = almost never or seldom)
Sometimes HR = 0.87 (0.40–1.89)
Rather or very often: HR = 1.28 (0.44–3.73)
Sex, age, education, occupational class, physical work exposure, physical activity
Holmberg et al., 2006, Sweden [66] Job demands (JCQ); decision latitude (JCQ) Rural male farmers and non-farmers, n = 1347 (cases = 39) Disability pension awards, registry, n = 39 None significant results in the fully adjusted model (fully adjusted estimates not shown) Sex, age, occupation (farmer/non-farmer), psychical work load, education, BMI, tobacco, alcohol, psychiatric symptoms, specific low back symptoms
Hublin et al., 2010, Finland [32] Shift work General working population, n = 20,142 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 857 Shift work (ref = daytime)
All men:
Night time T1 or T2: RR = 0.51 (0.17–1.49)
Shift work T1: RR = 1.12 (0.70–1.78)
Shift work T2: RR = 1.13 (0.67–1.90)
Shift work T1 and T2: RR = 0.70 (0.48–1.03)
All women:
Night time T1 or T2: RR = 0.94 (0.35–2.51)
Shift work T1: RR = 0.93 (0.48–1.82)
Shift work T2: RR = 1.32 (0.72–2.40)
Shift work T1 and T2: RR = 0.79 (0.43–1.43)
Sex, age, marital status, social class, education, smoking, binge drinking/alcohol consumption, hypertension, BMI, physical activity, work-related factors, general health factors, life satisfaction
Jensen et al., 2012, Denmark [55] Decision latitude (JCQ), demands (JCQ, the Danish version), shift work Gainfully employed nurses’ aides, n = 3332 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 540
(Additionally: voluntary early retirement)
Decision latitude (ref = high): HR = 0.90 (0.72–1.12)
Demands (ref = low): HR = 0.92 (0.75–1.13)
Shift work (ref = mainly day work)
Mainly evening work: HR = 1.29 (1.03–1.60)
Mainly night work: HR = 1.18 (0.87–1.61)
Mixed: HR = 0.97 (0.74–1.27)
Sex, age, marital status, health status, BMI, smoking, physical activity, education, mechanical work load
Juvani et al., 2014, Finland [78] Effort-reward imbalance (one item on effort and three items on rewards, adapted from the standard 10 item ERI scale developed by J. Siegrist) Cohort of public-sector employees, n = 51,874 Disability pension awards due to all diagnosis (n = 4542), depression (n = 890), musculoskeletal diagnoses (n = 2001), ischemic heart disease (n = 87), registry Work unit-level ERI
All diagnosis
4th highest HR = 1.07 (0.97–1.18)
Depression
4th highest HR = 1.63 (1.31–2.04)
Musculoskeletal
4th highest HR = 1.02 (0.88–1.99)
Ischemic heart disease
4th highest HR = 0.95 (0.48–1.88)
Individual-level ERI
All diagnosis
4th highest HR = 133 (1.20–1.47)
Depression
4th highest HR = 1.90 (1.51–2.40)
Musculoskeletal
4th highest HR = 1.32 (1.13–1.53)
Ischemic heart disease
4th highest HR = 0.93 (0.47–1.84)
Sex, age, place of residence, socioeconomic status, baseline health and work-related characteristics (Job strain)
Karkkainen et al., 2013, Finland [65] Work-time schedules (day, night, evening, shift work) General working population (Finnish twins), n = 16,028 Disability pension awards due to musculoskeletal diagnoses, registry, n = 1297 Work type (ref = day work)
Night: HR = 0.74 (0.17–3.18)
Evening: HR = 3.61 (1.21–10.76)
Shift: HR = 1.17 (0.83–1.65)
(NB: insignificant results for within twin pairs)
Sex, age, BMI, marital status, physical work exposure, education, occupational class, physical activity
Krause et al., 1997, Finland [62] Weekly work hours; Overwork index; Shift work; Deadlines (ref = weekly or less, daily or more often) General male working population, n = 968 Disability pension awards, questionnaire, n = 67 Weekly work hours (ref= > 40)
40–44: OR = 1.26 (p > 0.05)
45–59: OR = 1.49 (p > 0.05)
> = 60: OR = 2.49 ( p< 0.05)
Overwork: OR = 1.31 (p > 0.05)
Shift work (ref = no shift)
Regular shift: OR = 0.24 ( p< 0.05)
Irregular shift: OR = 0.98 (p > 0.05)
Deadlines (ref = weekly or less)
Daily or more: OR = 1.22 (p > 0.05)
Sex, age, economic factors, health status, health behavior
Krokstad et al., 2002, Norway [50] Job control (decision authority); high demands in concentration and attention General working population, n = 62,369 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 4750 Men (20–49 y)
Job control (ref = high): HR = 1.40 (1.00–1.94)
Men (50–66 y)
Job control (ref = high): HR = 1.34 (1.13–1.59)
Psych. demands (ref = low): HR = 1.11 (0.99–1.25)
Women (20–49 y)
Job control (ref = high): HR = 1.29 (1.04–1.60)
Women (50–66 y)
Job control (ref = high): HR = 1.31 (1.09–1.59)
Psych. demands (ref = low): HR = 1.33 (1.13–1.57)
Sex, age, educational level, employment status, health status, psychosocial risk factors, health behaviour
Labriola et al., 2007, Denmark [71] Decision authority (ref = high); skill discretion (ref = high); social support (ref = high); conflicts (ref = low); psychological demands (ref = low) (JCQ) General working population, n = 4177 (cases = 140) Disability pension awards, registry, n = 140 Decision authority: OR = 1.14 (0.77–1.71)
Skill discretion: OR = 1.24 (0.82–1.86) Social support: OR = 0.73 (0.48–1.12)
Conflicts: OR = 1.20 (0.78–1.84)
Psychological demands: OR = 0.90 (0.59–1.38)
Sick leave, gender, age, socioeconomic position, smoking, BMI, ergonomic work-related factors
Lahelma et al., 2012, Finland [60] Work arrangements (shift work; temporary work contract; working overtime (hours > 40 per week)), decision latitude (JCQ), job demands (JCQ), social support (Sarason) Employees of the city of Helsinki, n = 6525 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 525 All-cause disability
Men
Shift work (ref = no): HR = 1.16 (0.70–1.93)
Temporary work (ref = no): HR = 0.84 (0.36–1.96)
Overtime (ref = no): HR = 0.95 (0.56–1.60)
Low decision latitude: HR = 1.41 (0.90–2.21)
High job demands: HR = 0.75 (0.40–1.39)
Social support: HR = 0.88 (0.57–1.37)
Women
Shift work (ref = no): HR = 1.02 (0.79–1.31)
Temporary work (ref = no): HR = 1.03 (0.75–1.42)
Overtime (ref = no): HR = 1.02 (0.75–1.39)
Low decision latitude: HR = 1.34 (1.07–1.68)
High job demands: HR = 1.13 (0.88–1.44)
Social support: HR = 0.92 (0.74–1.15)
Musculoskeletal diseases
Shift work (ref = no): HR = 1.04 (0.75–1.44)
Temporary work (ref = no): HR = 0.70 (0.40–1.20)
Overtime (ref = no): HR = 0.85 (0.53–1.36)
Low job control: HR = 1.44 (1.07–1.93)
High job demands: HR = 0.94 (0.65–1.34)
Social support: HR = 0.80 (0.58–1.11)
Mental disorders
Shift work (ref = no): HR = 1.03 (0.66–1.60)
Temporary work (ref = no): HR = 1.06 (0.61–1.81)
Overtime (ref = no): HR = 1.12 (0.71–1.78)
Low job control: HR = 1.67 (1.12–2.49)
High job demands: HR = 1.48 (1.00–2.18)
Social support: HR = 0.82 (0.56–1.19)
Sex, age, occupational class, physical job exposure
Laine et al., 2009, Finland [67] Job strain (JCQ), job control, job demands (JCQ) Finish public sector employees, n = 25,150 Retired because of work disability, questionnaire, n = 93 Job strain (ref = low)
active: OR = 1.69 (0.62–2.87)
Passive: OR = 2.82 (1.34–5.96)
high: OR = 2.60 (1.26–5.34)
Job control (ref high)
low control: OR = 2.09 (1.02–4.30)
Job demands (ref = low)
High demands: OR = 1.76 (0.94–3.30)
Sex, age, socioeconomic position, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, obesity
Lund et al., 2001, Denmark [68] Job demands, Decision authority; Social support; Skill discretion (JCQ, 20 items) Waste collectors (2412) and municipal workers (1460) in Denmark. N = 2.618 male workers Disability pension, or sick leave benefits >2 months, self reported, n = 67 Skill discretion (ref = high quartile)
Mid 2 quartile: OR = 1.68 (0.74–3.82)
Mid1 quartile: OR = 1.25 (0.49–3.10)
Low quartile: OR = 2.70 (1.10–6.70)
Insignificant results for Job demands,
Decision authority and Social support (estimate not reported).
Sex, age, mechanical exposure, asthma, chronic bronchitis, musculoskeletal disorders, smoking status, Body Mass Index (BMI), alcohol consumption, marital status
Lund et al., 2003, Denmark [63] Decision authority; job demands; social support; conflict at work; employee development; supplementary training (JCQ: 18 items) General working population, n = 3318 Disability pension awards, or sick leave benefits >10 weeks, registry, n = 77 Decision authority: p > 0.05
Job demands: p > 0.05
Social support: p > 0.05
Conflict at work: p > 0.05
Employee development (ref = high)
Medium: OR = 1.2 (0.62–2.14)
Low: OR = 2.2 (1.11–4.39)
Supplementary training (ref = high)
Medium: OR = 1.7 (0.77–3.90)
Low: OR = 2.4 (1.11–5.26)
Sex, age, marital status, health, BMI, smoking, company size, public or private sector
Mantyniemi et al., 2012, Finland [47] Job strain based on work unit and occupational title, respectively (derived from JCQ; conflicting demands not included) (no test of demands and control) Public sector employees, n = 69,842 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 2572 Men
All cause disability: work unit based HR = 1.28 (1.07–1.53)/occupation based HR = 1.40 (1.15–1.71)
Musculoskeletal diseases: work unit based HR = 1.66 (1.26–2.20)/occupation based HR = 2.41 (1.81–3.21)
Depression: work unit based HR = 1.59 (1.03–2.47)/occupation based HR = 1.30 (0.78–2.16)
Coronary heart disease: work unit based HR = 2.14 (1.01–4.50)/occupation based HR = 2.37 (1.10–5.10)
Women
All cause disability: work unit based HR = 1.07 (0.98–1.17)/occupation based HR = 1.17 (1.04–1.31)
Musculoskeletal diseases: work unit based HR = 1.48 (1.31–1.67)/occupation based HR = 2.21 (1.91–2.57)
Depression: work unit based HR = 1.15 (0.97–1.37)/occupation based HR = 1.24 (1.00–1.53)
Coronary heart disease: work unit based HR = 1.18 (0.57–2.45)/occupation based HR = 0.98 (0.39–2.47)
Sex, age, health status, socioeconomic position
Robroek et al., 2013, European countries [73] High time pressure (single item); low decision latitude (JCQ: two items, one on authority and one on skill discretion); low rewards (JCQ) General working population >49 y, n = 4923 Disability pension awards, questionnaire, n = 6.2 per 1000 person-years High time pressure HR = 1.14 (0.77–1.70)
Low decision latitude : HR = 1.77 (1.10–2.84)
Low rewards HR = 1.44 (0.96–2.16)
Sex, age, health status, physical work exposure, education, marital status, BMI, smoking
Ropponen et al., 2012, Finland [72] Work-time schedules (day, shift, evening/night) General working population (twins), n = 16,028 Disability pension awards due to Low Back Diagnoses, registry, n = 470 Men
Day work = ref
Shift work: HR = 1.36 (0.98–1.88)
Evening/night work: HR = 0.62 (0.08–4.48)
Women
Day work = ref
Shift work: HR = 0.92 (0.59–1.43)
Evening/night work: HR = 0.1.52 (0.62–3.75)
Sex, age, Education, physical work exposure, physical activity, marital staus, BMI, smoking
Ropponen et al., 2013, Sweden [79] Job demands (5 items); job control (7 items); social support at work (4 items); job strain Cohort of all Swedish twins born between 1928 and 1958, n = 42,715 Disability pension awards due to musculoskeletal diagnoses, registry, n = 1774 Job demands (range 1–10; high score is low) HR = 1.10 (1.02–1.20)
Job control (range 1–10; high score is high) HR 0.93 (0.89–0.97)
Social support (range 1–10; high score is high) HR = 1.08 (0.98–1.19)
Job strain (ref = low)
High strain HR = 0.93 (0.73–1.19)
Active HR = 0.89 (0.75–1.07)
Passive HR = 1.25 (1.07–1.46)
ISO-strain HR = 1.27 (1.04–1.57)
Sex, age, education, married, children working at home
Samuelsson et al., 2013, Sweden [49] Job demands (continuous); job control (continuous); Social support (continuous); job strain (validated JEM, based on principal component factor analysis of the Swedish questionnaire items relating to work) All twins born 1925–1958 in Sweden, n = 59,893 Disability pension awards with mental diagnoses, registry, n = 7709 Whole cohort
Low job demands: HR = 1.07 (0.98–1.15)
High job control: HR = 0.93 (0.89–0.97)
High social support: HR = 1.12 (1.01–1.24)
Job strain (ref = low strain)
High: HR = 0.96 (0.75–1.22)
Active: HR = 0.97 (0.81–1.16)
Passive: HR = 1.26 (1.05–1.50)
Iso-strain: HR = 1.41 (1.12–1.77)
Twin cohort
Low job demands: HR = 1.23 (1.06–1.43)
High job control: HR = 0.91 (0.83–0.99)
High social support: HR = 1.00 (0.79–1.23)
Job strain (ref = low strain)
High: HR = 0.65 (0.41–1.03)
Active: HR = 0.78 (0.56–1.08)
Passive: HR = 1.04 (0.76–1.44)
Iso-strain: HR = 1.09 (0.76–1.44)
Sex, age, marital status, education, occupational class
Sinokki et.al., 2010, Finland [53] Social support at work, supervisor and coworkers (JCQ) General working population, n = 3414 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 257 Support from supervisor (ref. = high) Low: OR = 1.70 (1.21–2.38)
Support from co-workers (ref. = high) Low: OR = 1.35 (0.86–2.14)
Sex, age, marital status, occupational grade, physical activity, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking, and either physical illness, mental disorders, sleeping difficulties
Sterud T. al., 2013, Norway [80] Job demands (single item), Job control (three items), supportive leadership (three items), bullying/harassment (three items), monotonous work (single item) Some items have been tested for psychometric quality Representative cohort from the general working population, n = 6745 Disability pension awards, questionnaire, n = 176 Job demands OR = 0.82 (0.53–1.26)
Job control OR = 0.84 (0.54–1.30)
Supportive leadership OR = 1.61 (1.02–2.56)
Bulling/harassment OR = 1.52 (0.78–2.93)
Monotonous work OR = 1.53 (1.09–2.16)
Sex, age, psychological distress, mechanical factors at work
Støver et al., 2013, Norway [81] Cumulative summation index of 11 psychosocial work exposure questions Cohort of all individuals aged 40–42 years in 1988–1989, living in Nordland county, Norway, n = 5749 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 1944 Five point increase on the cumulative index for psychosocial work environment HR = 1.22 (1.04–1.44) Sex, age, baseline health, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, physical-, chemical- and mechanical work exposures
Thielen et al., 2013, Denmark [82] Amount of work (three items, COPSOQ) General working population, n = 5758 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 2201 Amount of work (ref = low)
Middle HR = 0.95 (0.68–1.31)
High HR = 0.67 (0.44–1.01)
Mental demands/depression (ref = low/low)
High/low HR = 0.66 (0.41–1.05)
Low/High HR = 2.45 (1.71–3.52)
High/High HR = 2.08 (1.26–3.40)
Sex, age, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, obesity, muscular-skeletal pain, depressive symptoms
Tüchsen et al., 2008, Denmark [64] Shift workers compared with permanent day workers General working population sample, n = 3980 women and 4025 men Disability pension, registry, n = 253 women and 173 men Women
Shift work HR = 1.34 (1.02–1.75)
Men
Shift work HR = 1.18 (0.96–1.46)
Sex, age, general health, SES, BMI, smoking status and ergonomic exposure
Vahtera et al., 2005, Finland [43] Downsizing (ref = reductions in personnel less than 8% vs. minor downsizing (8–18%) and major downsizing (more than 18%). Municipal employees, n = 5043 men and 14,239 women Disability pension awards, registry, n = 68 men and 155 women Men
All cause disability: HR = 1.46 (1.02–2.08)
Psychiatric diseases: HR = 1.26 (0.70–2.26
Musculoskeletal diseases: HR = 1.29 (0.65–2.59)
Other causes: HR = 1.55 (1.10–2.19)
Women
All cause disability: HR = 1.81 (1.22–2.70)
Psychiatric diseases: HR = 1.26 (0.63–2.54)
Musculoskeletal diseases: HR = 1.81 (0.94–3.90)
Other causes: HR = 1.89 (1.27–2.81)
Sex, age, occupational status, type of employment contract, and geographical area
Vahtera, J. et al., 2010, Finland [51] Self-assessed worktime control (7 items scale); Co-worker assessed worktime control (7 items scale) (Validated instrument) Public sector employees, n = 30,700 Disability pension awards, registry, n = 1178 Self-assessed worktime control
All: HR = 0.87 (0.80 to 0.94)
Men: HR = 0.97 (0.82 to 1.15)
Women: HR = 0.86 (0.78 to 0.94)
Co-worker assessed worktime control
All: HR = 0.76 (0.67 to 0.87)
Men: HR = 0.94 (0.72 to 1.23)
Women: HR = 0.71 (0.61 to 0.83)
Sex, age, socioeconomic status, work-related factors, health risk behavior, health indicators
Virtanen et.al., 2010 UK [69] Organizational change Civil servants (office staff), n = 4682 Retirement due to health reasons or left
The Civil Service and subsequently classified themselves as long term sick, n = 239
Organizational change (Yes vs. not planned) HR = 1.61 (1.23–2.10) Sex, age, duration of employment, grad, perceived health, marital status, material problems, housing tenure, car access, long term illness, general health questionnaire