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Table 3 Past-year gambling participation and harms among females by age in 2011 and 2015 (% ± CI)

From: Attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm: cross-sectional Finnish population studies in 2011 and 2015

  15–17 18–24 25–34 35–44 45–54 55–64 65–74
2011
(n = 64)
2015
(n = 83)
2011
(n = 228)
2015
(n = 172)
2011
(n = 278)
2015
(n = 328)
2011
(n = 335)
2015
(n = 305)
2011
(n = 447)
2015
(n = 359)
2011
(n = 564)
2015
(n = 491)
2011
(n = 451)
2015
(n = 472)
Gambling frequency
 No gambling 66.7 ± 11.6 71.9 ± 9.7 32.2 ± 6.1 27.0 ± 6.6 21.0 ± 4.8 21.6 ± 4.5 24.4 ± 4.6 24.1 ± 4.8 19.7 ± 3.7 22.0 ± 4.3 23.8 ± 3.5 18.3 ± 3.4 36.2 ± 4.4 26.4 ± 4.0
 Less than monthly 25.9 ± 10.7 20.8 ± 8.7 33.5 ± 6.1 42.2 ± 7.4 39.3 ± 5.7 39.3 ± 5.3 35.1 ± 5.1 36.7 ± 5.4 27.8 ± 4.2 30.6 ± 4.8 20.3 ± 3.3 25.2 ± 3.8 16.4 ± 3.4 18.5 ± 3.5
 1–3 times/month 4.9 ± 5.3 5.2 ± 4.8 23.4 ± 5.5 19.3 ± 5.9 24.9 ± 5.1 24.4 ± 4.7 20.9 ± 4.4 19.6 ± 4.5 19.5 ± 3.7 19.9 ± 4.1 19.6 ± 3.3 17.9 ± 3.4 9.3 ± 2.7 14.4 ± 3.2
 Once a week 1.2 ± 2.7 1.0 ± 2.1 6.7 ± 3.3 8.6 ± 4.2 11.7 ± 3.8 11.5 ± 3.5 17.4 ± 4.1 15.7 ± 4.1 27.0 ± 4.1 22.6 ± 4.4 29.4 ± 3.8 32.0 ± 4.1 32.8 ± 4.3 31.3 ± 4.2
 Several times a week 1.2 ± 2.7 1.0 ± 2.1 4.2 ± 2.6 2.9 ± 2.5 3.0 ± 2.0 3.1 ± 1.9 2.2 ± 1.6 3.9 ± 2.2 5.9 ± 2.2 4.8 ± 2.2 6.9 ± 2.1 6.6 ± 2.2 5.2 ± 2.1 9.4 ± 2.6
Significance X 2 = .699, df = 4, p = .952, ϕ = .063 X 2 = 5.677, df = 4, p = .225, ϕ = .108 X 2 = .056, df = 4, p = 1.000, ϕ = .009 X 2 = 2.120, df = 4, p = .714, ϕ = .056 X 2 = 2.894, df = 4, p = .576, ϕ = .062 X 2 = 6.065, df = 4, p = .194, ϕ = .084 X 2 = 12.343, df = 4, p = .015, ϕ = .0.138
 No gambling   .513   .232   .853   .928   .470   .053   .009
 Less than monthly   .476   .050   1.000   .688   .420   .104   .531
 1-3 times/month   1.000   .268   .930   .701   .926   .541   .054
 Once a week   1.000   .495   1.000   .603   .174   .416   .734
 Several times a week   1.000   .469   1.000   .267   .520   .893   .052
Online gambling
 Yes 0 2.1 14.4 16.3 19.9 26.3 16.9 23.2 19.2 17.0 12.5 15.2 4.0 9.4
Significance p = .549, ϕ = .084 p = .603, ϕ = .027 p = .056, ϕ = .076 p = .051, ϕ = .079 p = .499, ϕ = − .028 p = .315, ϕ = .038 p = .016, ϕ = .099
Gambling harmsa
 No gambling 66.7 ± 11.6 71.9 ± 9.7 32.2 ± 6.1 27.0 ± 6.6 21.0 ± 4.8 21.6 ± 4.5 24.4 ± 4.6 24.1 ± 4.8 19.7 ± 3.7 22.0 ± 4.3 23.8 ± 3.5 18.3 ± 3.4 36.2 ± 4.4 26.4 ± 4.0
 No harms 18.5 ± 9.5 17.5 ± 8.2 46.2 ± 6.5 42.9 ± 7.4 64.0 ± 5.6 58.4 ± 5.3 65.6 ± 5.1 65.1 ± 5.4 69.5 ± 4.3 62.3 ± 5.0 61.5 ± 4.0 64.5 ± 4.2 54.1 59.7
 One harm 9.9 ± 7.3 3.1 ± 3.7 13.0 ± 4.4 14.3 ± 5.2 10.8 ± 3.7 13.8 ± 3.7 8.2 ± 2.9 6.7 ± 2.8 7.6 ± 2.5 8.1 ± 2.8 9.5 ± 2.4 9.9 ± 2.6 7.1 8.1
 ≥2 harms 6.1 ± 5.9 7.2 ± 5.6 8.8 ± 3.7 15.1 ± 5.4 4.5 ± 2.4 5.9 ± 2.6 1.9 ± 1.5 4.2 ± 2.3 3.0 ± 1.6 7.3 ± 2.7 5.1 ± 1.8 6.8 ± 2.2 3.0 6.0
Significance X 2 = 3.481, df = 3, p = .323, ϕ = .140 X 2 = 5.586, df = 3, p = .134, ϕ = .108 X 2 = 2.743, df = 3, p = .433, ϕ = .063 X 2 = 3.373, df = 3, p = .338, ϕ = .071 X 2 = 8.712, df = 3, p = .033, ϕ = .109 X 2 = 4.444, df = 3, p = .217, ϕ = .072 X 2 = 9.031, df = 3, p = .029, ϕ = .118
 No gambling   .513   .232   .853   .928   .470   .053   .009
 No harms   1.000   .465   .138   .935   .044   .396   .171
 One harm   .115   .693   .248   .466   .891   .909   .657
 ≥2 harms   1.000   .036   .494   .119   .012   .319   .092
  1. Data in 2011 (n = 2367, non-weighted) and 2015 (n = 2210, non-weighted); Significance (p) between time is determined by Chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests for weighted data based on gender, age and region of residence; Estimate of effect size (ϕ = phi coefficient/Cramer’s V); aHarms measured using 16 items from the South Oaks Gambling Screen and the Problem Gambling Severity Index; CI, 95% confidence intervals