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Table 4 Study 2. Multilevel regression model including stimulus-level and participant-level predictors. Area of Interest (AOI; Brand, health, rest, dummy coded with rest as reference category), brightness, contrast, complexity, and size were level 1 (AOI-level) predictors. Picture type (Alcohol, soda, dummy coded with soda as reference category) and presentation order were level 2 (Picture level) predictors. Advice condition (Alcohol, control, dummy coded with control as reference category) and baseline motivation to reduce drinking were level 3 (Participant level) predictors. All predictors were included as individual main effects and in all possible two-way and three-way interactions with picture type and AOI

From: Alcohol consumers’ attention to warning labels and brand information on alcohol packaging: Findings from cross-sectional and experimental studies

Variable Model 2 (stimulus-level and participant-level predictors)
  Two-way interactions Three-way interactions.
Main effect x picture type x AOI brand x AOI health x AOI brand x picture type x AOI health x picture type
b (SE) b (SE) b (SE) b (SE) b (SE) b (SE)
Intercept 1.78 (1.45) - - - - -
AOI brand −0.26 (2.14) −22.46 (3.04)*** - - - -
AOI health −0.54 (1.72) −8.46 (2.23)*** - - - -
Picture type 8.46 (1.93)*** - 22.46 (3.04)*** −8.46 (2.23)*** - -
Order −0.01 (0.01) 0.02 (0.02) −0.02 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02) −0.002 (0.02) −0.01 (0.02)
Brightness 0.005 (0.003)+ −0.03 (0.01)*** −0.01 (0.01) −0.01 (0.01) 0.10 (0.01)*** 0.04 (0.01)***
Contrast −0.01 (0.01) −0.15 (0.02)*** 0.003 (0.01) 0.01 (0.01) 0.16 (0.02)*** 0.15 (0.02)***
Complexity 10.98 (7.94) 23.85 (11.08)* −4.14 (9.06) −10.41 (8.20) −18.89 (12.32) −30.03 (11.36)**
Size 0.03 (0.01)** 0.01 (0.01) 0.04 (0.02)* −0.02 (0.06) 0.14 (0.03)*** 0.20 (0.07)**
Advice condition 0.03 (0.27) 0.37 (0.32) −0.69 (0.29)* 0.11 (0.29) −0.45 (0.40) −0.51 (0.40)
Baseline motivation to reduce drinking −0.01 (0.04) 0.04 (0.04) −0.02 (0.04) 0.03 (0.04) −0.07 (0.06) −0.06 (0.06)
Random effects Residual variance Proportion residual variance explained
Level 3 0.55 (0.12) −29.67%    
Level 2 4.29 (0.26) 12.76%    
Level 1 16.97 (0.29) 35.1%    
χ 2(47) 31.72**