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Table 6 Summary of significant associations of stunting (HAZ < −2) and low BMI (zBMI < −2) with household water and sanitation, Young Lives cohort

From: Children with access to improved sanitation but not improved water are at lower risk of stunting compared to children without access: a cohort study in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam

   Summary    Country
Possible Associations Total Significant Associations Total Significant Associations, Expected Direction Total Significant Associations Total Significant Associations, Expected Direction Total Significant Associations, Expected Direction (Unadjusted) Total Significant Associations, Expected Direction (Adjusted)
  Unadjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Adjusted Ethiopia India Peru Vietnam Ethiopia India Peru Vietnam
STUNTING
 Improved water (age ~1y) 12 10 9 1 0 3 0 3 3 0 0 0 0
 Improved water (age ~5y) 8 5 5 1 1 0 2 1 2 0 0 0 1
 Improved water (age ~8y) 4 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
Total water (all rounds) 24 16 16 4 4 3 2 5 6 0 0 0 4
 Improved toilet (age ~1y) 12 12 12 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 2 0 0
 Improved toilet (age ~5y) 8 5 4 1 1 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 1
 Improved toilet (age ~8y) 4 2 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
Total toilet (all rounds) 24 19 18 6 6 3 4 5 6 3 2 0 1
LOW BMI
 Improved water (age ~1y 12 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
 Improved water (age ~5y) 8 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
 Improved water (age ~8y) 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total water (all rounds) 24 5 3 2 1 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
 Improved toilet (age ~1y) 12 4 4 2 2 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 2
 Improved toilet (age ~5y) 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Improved toilet (age ~8y) 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total toilet (all rounds) 24 4 4 2 2 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 2
  1. This table summarizes findings from Tables 2, 3, 4 and 5 where significant refers to the standard p < 0.05 level. Total Significant Associations in the Expected Direction refers to associations that are in the direction of what is typically hypothesized (e.g., toilet improvements predict reduced stunting). The number of Possible Associations is the same for unadjusted and (separately) adjusted models.