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Table 1 Descriptive statistics

From: Children with access to improved sanitation but not improved water are at lower risk of stunting compared to children without access: a cohort study in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam

  Ethiopia (n = 1,892) India (n = 1,919) Peru (n = 1,999) Vietnam (n = 1,905)
Mean/% SD No. Missinga Mean/% SD No. Missinga Mean/% SD No. Missinga Mean/% SD No. Missinga
Stunting and low BMI
 Stunted (HAZ < −2) at age ~1y 40.1   48 29.9   17 27.6   10 19.7   3
 Stunted (HAZ < −2) at age ~5y 30.7   75 34.7   63 32.5   93 24.3   39
 Stunted (HAZ < −2) at age ~8y 20.1   98 28.4   78 19.9   113 19.0   51
 Low BMI (zBMI < −2) at age ~1y 16.1   137 18.9   18 1.9   11 3.8   3
 Low BMI (zBMI < −2) at age ~5y 8.5   75 18.9   63 0.4   93 3.9   39
 Low BMI (zBMI < −2) at age ~8y 21.6   98 27.4   78 0.9   114 11.7   60
Household level water and toilets
 Improved water at age ~1y 53.9   0 75.5   0 80.7   0 10.2   0
 Improved water at age ~5y 82.4   70 95.0   57 88.0   86 83.6   29
 Improved water at age ~8y 89.0   95 96.9   76 92.0   105 87.5   0
 Improved toilets at age ~1y 21.3   0 26.5   0 77.6   0 49.2   0
 Improved toilets at age ~5y 41.1   70 32.9   57 85.3   86 55.0   29
 Improved toilets at age ~8y 57.0   95 35.1   76 91.1   105 60.6   0
Child characteristics
 Age in months at age ~1y 11.6 3.6 0 11.7 3.4 0 11.5 3.5 0 11.7 3.1 0
 Age in months at age ~5y 61.8 3.8 72 64.2 3.8 57 63.5 4.7 86 63.0 3.5 29
 Age in months at age ~8y 96.9 3.9 97 95.4 3.9 77 94.9 3.6 105 96.5 3.5 47
 Child is female 47.5   0 46.4   0 50.2   0 48.7   0
Parental characteristics
 Mother’s height 158.6 6.1 223 151.6 6.0 93 150.0 5.5 182 152.2 5.9 51
 Mother’s completed schooling (grades attained) 3.0 3.9 89 3.7 4.4 61 7.8 4.4 101 7.0 4.0 44
 Father’s completed schooling (grades attained) 4.9 4.3 154 5.6 5.0 60 9.1 3.9 145 7.7 4.0 77
 Mother’s age 27.4 6.3 51 23.6 4.3 9 26.8 6.8 15 27.1 5.7 5
Household characteristics
 Household size at age ~1y 5.7 2.2 0 5.4 2.4 0 5.7 2.3 0 4.9 1.8 0
 Household size at age ~5y 6.0 2.1 72 5.5 2.2 57 5.5 2.1 86 4.6 1.5 29
 Household size at age ~8y 6.2 2.0 95 5.4 2.3 76 5.4 1.9 105 4.6 1.5 29
 Changed communities between ages ~1y and ~5y 14.0   72 9.8   57 47.7   86 15.6   29
 Changed communities between ages ~5y and ~8y 9.7   97 2.5   77 77.4   131 0.2   46
 Asset index at age ~1y 0.0 1.9 1 0.0 1.9 0 0.0 2.0 0 0.0 2.0 0
 Asset index at age ~5y 0.0 2.1 71 0.0 2.0 57 0.0 2.1 86 0.0 1.9 29
 Asset index at age ~8y 0.0 2.1 95 0.0 1.9 76 0.0 2.0 105 0.0 2.0 0
 Urban residence 35.7   0 26.0   0 66.5   0 19.9   0
Other community characteristics
 Community wealth 0.0 2.6 96 0.0 2.0 78 0.0 2.5 132 0.0 2.2 29
 Community has hospital 32.6   96 47.9   44 35.2   0 90.0   0
 Community has secondary school 36.9   96 44.9   44 77.9   0 98.3   0
 Community population 8,149.2 7,265.0 96 3,103.9 3,659.0 149 4,255.4 3,923.9 207 10,376.1 5,834.3 0
  1. aThis column reflects the number of missing (and thus, imputed with multiple imputation) observations per variable