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Table 2 Short- and long-term intervention effects on objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time

From: Short- and long-term effectiveness of a three-month individualized need-supportive physical activity counseling intervention at the workplace

  Intervention group Reference group Short-term intervention effect Long-term intervention effect
Baseline Post
(3 months)
Follow-up
(9 months)
Baseline Post
(3 months)
Follow-up
(9 months)
Main effect of time 2 x 2 interactiona ES Main effect of time 3 x 2 interactionb ES
Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) F F d F F d
Steps (n/day)
 Weekdays 9173.1 (203.0) 10453.9 (207.7) 9646.4 (226.5) 10048.0 (446.7) 9521.2 (458.7) 10052.0 (460.1) 2.938 16.403*** 0.65 1.530 8.988*** 0.48
 Weekend days 9851.5 (247.9) 11604.1 (290.9) 10971.9 (325.2) 9650.3 (548.2) 10418.0 (644.5) 9977.6 (646.8) 12.188** 1.730 0.21 6.744** 1.229 0.18
 Average days 9378.6 (188.7) 10824.5 (197.7) 10034.7 (223.3) 9857.3 (416.4) 9767.8 (436.2) 9983.7 (456.4) 12.674*** 13.966*** 0.60 6.187 7.830** 0.45
Sedentary time (≤1.8 MET)
 Weekdaysc 1039.1 (0.0) 994.5 (9.2) 1012.5 (9.6) 1039.1 (0.0) 1008.9 (20.5) 1044.4 (20.4) 13.015*** 0.389 0.10 5.672 1.002 0.16
 Weekend days 1005.2 (10.0) 949.3 (11.7) 976.1 (11.7) 997.5 (22.0) 969.4 (25.7) 987.0 (23.5) 9.094** 0.936 0.15 4.681 0.588 0.12
 Average days 1035.1 (8.1) 986.4 (8.6) 1010.2 (9.5) 1001.3 (17.7) 969.7 (18.7) 1001.1 (19.3) 20.734*** 0.972 0.16 10.345*** 1.115 0.17
Light PA (>1.8- < 3 MET)
 Weekdays 64.1 (2.8) 69.5 (2.9) 68.0 (3.0) 74.2 (6.1) 73.7 (6.3) 70.9 (6.1) 0.217 1.506 0.20 0.372 0.744 0.14
 Weekend days 94.5 (4.1) 93.7 (4.3) 102.9 (4.5) 98.5 (9.1) 89.1 (9.5) 93.9 (9.1) 0.954 0.685 0.13 0.781 0.819 0.14
 Average days 73.1 (2.9) 77.2 (3.0) 78.4 (3.0) 82.6 (6.2) 77.8 (6.5) 77.3 (6.1) 0.116 2.734 0.26 0.009 1.673 0.21
Moderate PA (>3- < 6 MET)
 Weekdays 34.6 (2.2) 50.5 (2.8) 41.8 (2.9) 47.4 (4.8) 52.4 (6.1) 51.4 (5.8) 9.513** 2.733 0.26 5.322** 1.389 0.19
 Weekend days 52.5 (3.5) 69.9 (4.6) 59.6 (4.5) 55.1 (7.7) 71.5 (10.1) 64.6 (9.1) 8.932** 0.049 0.04 5.063** 0.048 0.04
 Average days 41.3 (2.5) 57.3 (3.0) 47.6 (3.0) 51.3 (5.5) 58.5 (6.6) 54.8 (6.1) 12.020** 2.083 0.23 6.577** 0.950 0.16
Vigorous PA (≥6 MET)
 Weekdays 1.7 (0.3) 3.5 (0.4) 3.2 (0.5) 3.0 (0.6) 2.5 (0.9) 4.1 (0.9) 1.791 4.704* 0.35 2.889 2.625 0.26
 Weekend days 1.4 (0.3) 4.5 (0.6) 4.0 (0.7) 0.7 (0.6) 2.8 (1.3) 5.0 (1.4) 12.733*** 0.406 0.10 14.044*** 1.095 0.17
 Average days 1.6 (0.2) 3.8 (0.4) 3.3 (0.4) 2.4 (0.6) 2.6 (0.9) 4.4 (0.9) 6.928** 3.008 0.28 8.285*** 2.696 0.26
MVPA (≥3 MET)
 Weekdaysd 41.3 (0.0) 60.3 (3.4) 51.1 (3.1) 41.3 (0.0) 42.5 (7.6) 43.3 (6.7) 5.905* 4.582* 0.34 3.052 2.281 0.24
 Weekend days 57.7 (3.8) 81.2 (5.1) 69.3 (5.0) 56.1 (8.5) 78.1 (11.1) 79.1 (10.1) 13.201*** 0.063 0.04 8.870*** 0.712 0.14
 Average days 45.2 (2.6) 65.3 (3.3) 54.8 (3.2) 56.4 (5.8) 65.4 (7.2) 64.3 (6.5) 14.478*** 2.316 0.24 8.190*** 1.263 0.18
  1. PA and sedentary time are expressed as minutes per day
  2. PA Physical activity, MVPA Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, MET Metabolic equivalent, ES Effect size, SE Standard error
  3. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001
  4. a2(time) x 2(group) interaction effect; b3(time) x 2(group) interaction effect; c adjusted for baseline weekday sedentary time; dadjusted for baseline weekday MVPA