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Table 3 Basic descriptive of African ASRs in Hong Kong, assessing structural and health system determinants of health as defined by the CSDH framework (Solar & Irwin [16]) (n = 374)

From: Mental health of African asylum-seekers and refugees in Hong Kong: using the social determinants of health framework

Health system determinants of health
 Satisfaction with Medical Services
  Not used 87 (23.3%)
  Fair/Poor 105 (28.1%)
  Good-Excellent 182 (48.6%)
 Admission to hospitala
  Yes 146 (39.0%)
  No 228 (61.0%)
 Difficulties Accessing Medical Facilities
  No 104 (27.8%)
  Yes 270 (72.2%)
 Obtained treatment due to illness/injurya
  Yes 217 (58.0%)
  No 157 (42.0%)
Structural determinants of health
 Socio-economic Position
  ASR Status
   Refugee 32 (8.6%)
   Asylum Seeker Claimant 172 (46.0%)
   Torture Claimant 115 (30.7%)
   Asylum Seeker & Torture Claimant 55 (14.7%)
  Education Level in country of origin
   None 55 (14.7%)
   Primary 87 (23.3%)
   High School 177 (47.3%)
   University or above 55 (14.7%)
  Occupation in country of origin
   Professional 124 (33.1%)
   Supervisory 57 (15.2%)
   Skilled manual worker 74 (19.8%)
   Semi/Unskilled manual worker 44 (11.8%)
   Casual worker or unemployed 75 (20.1%)
  Discrimination
   Everyday Discrimination Scale: Mean = 12.87; SD = ±7.01
    Treated with less respect than localsa
     None 118 (31.5)
     Not regularly 96 (25.7)
     Regularly 160 (42.8)
 Receive Poorer Services than localsa
  None 104 (27.8)
  Not regularly 83 (22.2)
  Regularly 187 (50.0)
 Considered Not Smarta
  None 100 (26.8)
  Not regularly 88 (23.5)
  Regularly 186 (49.7)
 People Fear youa
  None 117 (31.3)
  Not regularly 84 (22.4)
  Regularly 173 (46.3)
 Felt threateneda
  None 169 (45.2)
  Not Regularly 79 (21.1)
  Regularly 126 (33.7)
  1. aReported in the past 12 months