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Table 2 Basic descriptive of African ASRs in Hong Kong, assessing different demographic factors and intermediary determinants of health as defined by the CSDH framework (Solar & Irwin [16]). (n = 374)

From: Mental health of African asylum-seekers and refugees in Hong Kong: using the social determinants of health framework

Socio-demographics characteristics
 Gender
  Male 292 (78.1%)
  Female 82 (21.9%)
 Age Group (Mean: 31.52, SD: ±7.41)
  18–27years 107 (28.6%)
  28–37years 194 (51.9%)
  38–47years 66 (17.6%)
  48years + 7 (1.9%)
 Place of origin
  North Africa 13 (3.5%)
  East Africa 131 (35.0%)
  Central Africa 69 (18.4%)
  South Africa 10 (2.7%)
  Western Africa 151 (40.4%)
 Length of Residence in Hong Kong
  Less than 5 years 280 (74.9%)
  5 to 10 years 89 (23.8%)
  11years plus 5 (1.3%)
Intermediarydeterminants of health
 Material/Living Circumstances
  Problems with Accommodation
   No 80 (21.4%)
   Yes 294 (78.6%)
  Problems with food packages
   No 132 (35.3%)
   Yes 242 (64.7%)
  Problems with case officer
   No 174 (46.5%)
   Yes 200 (53.5%)
 Biological/Behavioural Circumstances
  Alcohol consumptiona,b
   None 268 (71.7%)
   Infrequently 57 (15.2%)
   Frequently 49 (13.1%)
  Smokinga,c  
   None 260 (69.5%)
   Light Smoker 24 (6.4%)
   Heavy Smoker 90 (24.1%)
  Recreational Drugsa  
   No 342 (91.4%)
   Yes 32 (8.6%)
  Exercisea,d
   Little or none 276 (73.8%)
   Frequent 98 (26.2%)
  Multiple Sex partnersa
   None 201 (53.7%)
   Only one 117 (31.3%)
   More than one 56 (15.0%)
  Illness, Injury, or symptomsa
   No 193 (51.6%)
   Yes 181 (48.4%)
  Chronic illness
   No 223 (59.6%)
   Yes 151 (40.4%)
Psychosocial Factors
 Religion
  Atheist 14 (3.7%)
  Christian/Catholic 211 (56.4%)
  Muslim 142 (38.0%)
  Other 7 (1.9%)
 Marital Status
  Single 252 (67.4%)
  Married 71 (19.0%)
  Divorced/Separated/Widowed 51 (13.6%)
 Living Companion  
  Alone 286 (76.5%)
  With Family 65 (17.4%)
  With Others 23 (6.1%)
 PHQ-2 Score (Cut off at 2)
  Below 2 239 (63.9%)
  Equal or above 2 135 (36.1%)
 General healthe
  Very Good/Excellent 72 (19.2%)
  Good 114 (30.5%)
  Fair/Poor 188 (50.3%)
 Health vs. locals of same agee
  Better or Much Better 162 (43.3%)
  Same 133 (35.6%)
  Worse or Much Worse 79 (21.1%)
 Health vs. prior arrival in HKe
  Better or Much Better 148 (39.6%)
  Same 110 (29.4%)
  Worse or Much Worse 116 (31.0%)
 PHQ-2 Score (Cut off at 4)
  Below 4 327 (87.4%)
  Equal or above 4 47 (12.6%)
  1. a Reported in the past 30 days; b Alcohol Consumption – None = does not drink, infrequently = <5 drinks/week, Frequently = >5 drinks/week; c Smoking – Light Smokers = <10 cigarettes per day, Heavy Smokers = >10 Cigarettes per day; d Exercise – Little or none = <15 days with exercise, Frequent = >15 days with exercise; e Based on the participants own judgement