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Table 2 Baseline sample characteristics as predictors of disability retirement

From: Psychological, social, and mechanical work exposures and disability retirement: a prospective registry study

Background variable Number Disability cases
n
%a HRb 95% CI P-value
Sex
 Male 5536 111 2.01 1.00   
 Female 6902 442 6.40 3.30 2.68–4.06 <0.001*
Age in years, mean (SD) 41.79 (10.23) 44.02 (9.80)     
 <30 1697 58 3.42 1.00   
 30–39 3641 117 3.21 0.88 0.64–1.20 0.416
 40–49 3863 184 4.76 1.34 0.99–1.80 0.051
 50–62 3237 194 5.99 2.31 1.72–3.09 <0.001*
Classification of occupationc
 Legislators, senior officials, and managers 1101 26 2.36 0.35 0.23–0.51 <0.001*
 Professionals 3510 112 3.19 0.62 0.51–0.77 <0.001*
 Technicians and associate professionals 3476 153 4.40 1.04 0.86–1.25 0.700
 Clerks 690 46 6.67 1.30 0.96–1.76 0.092
 Service workers and shop and market sales workers 2794 173 6.19 2.26 1.89–2.71 <0.001*
 Skilled agricultural and fishery workers 1 0 0 - - -
 Craft and related trades workers 358 4 1.12 0.26 0.10–0.70 0.008*
 Plant and machine operators and assemblers 39 3 7.69 1.72 0.55–5.36 0.348
 Elementary occupations 316 22 6.96 1.52 0.99–2.32 0.056
 Armed forces and unspecified 0 0 0 - - -
 Missing data 153 14 9.15    
Skill leveld
 Competence equivalent to minimum 4 years of higher education (>15 years) 3523 113 3.21 1.00   
 Competence equivalent to 1–3 years of higher education (13–15 years) 3517 156 4.44 1.48 1.16–1.88 0.002*
 Competence equivalent to high school (10–12 years) 3924 232 5.91 2.23 1.78–2.79 <0.001*
 Occupations that do not require high school (<10 years) 329 24 7.29 2.16 1.39–3.35 0.001*
 Occupations with unspecified requirements for competence 1101 26 2.36 0.53 0.35–0.82 0.004*
 Missing data 44 2 4.55    
Sickness absencee
 No 11911 493 4.14 1.00   
 Yes 527 60 11.39 2.17 1.66–2.83 <0.001*
  1. N number of subjects, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, SD standard deviation
  2. aPercentage of registered disability pension cases within each category
  3. bCrude effect
  4. cTreated as binary variables. Each occupational group coded as 1 while all other listed occupational groups coded as 0 (reference) in each analysis
  5. dOccupations grouped into the level of competence expected for the respective occupations. In cases with no information from company records missing values were substituted by, if available, self-reported skill level
  6. eDue to respiratory illnesses, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, or cancer in the 3 years prior to response
  7. * P < 0.05