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Table 1 Characteristics of patients in HIV care in a rural and an urban clinic, Zomba District, Malawi

From: The burden of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular risk factors among adult Malawians in HIV care: consequences for integrated services

Characteristics Total Rural Urban P-value
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Number of patients 952 472 (49.6) 480 (50.4)  
Gender
  Female 683 (71.7) 334 (70.8) 349 (72.7) 0.505
  Male 269 (28.3) 138 (29.2) 131 (27.3  
Age in years (N = 952)     0.250
  18–34 210 (22.1) 111 (23.5) 99 (20.6)  
  35–44 361 (37.9) 182 (38.6) 179 (37.3)  
  45–54 238 (25.0) 105 (22.3) 133 (27.7)  
   ≥ 55 143 (15.0) 74 (15.7) 69 (14.4)  
Mean age (SD) in years 43.0 (10.2) 42.7 (10.6) 43.2 (9.8) 0.471
Educational status
  None 204 (21.5) 143 (30.3) 61 (12.7) <0.001
  Standard 1–8 576 (60.6) 283 (60.0) 293 (61.2)  
  Secondary & above 171 (18.0) 46 (9.8) 125 (26.1)  
Household size mean (SD) 2.58 (1.26) 2.55 (1.17) 2.62 (1.35) 0.401
Employment status
  Employed 112 (11.8) 17 (3.6) 95 (19.8) <0.001
  Unemployed 255 (26.8) 38 (8.1) 217 (45.2)  
  Self Employed 585 (61.5) 417 (88.4) 168 (35.0)  
Physical activity
  Vigorously active 854 (89.7) 458 (97.0) 396 (82.5) <0.001
  Moderately active 90 (9.5) 11 (2.3) 79 (16.5)  
  Inactive individuals 8 (0.8) 3 (0.6) 5 (1.0)  
Dietary history
  Mean days of fruit consumption/wk (SD) 2.63 (2.06) 2.31 (1.87) 2.98 (2.20) <0.001
  Mean servings of fruit/day (SD) 1.25 (0.76) 1.20 (0.74) 1.31 (0.79) 0.028
  Mean days of vegetables consumption/wk (SD) 5.13 (1.95) 4.51 (1.88) 5.73 (1.83) <0.001
  Mean servings of vegetables/day (SD) 1.81 (0.49) 1.77 (0.50) 1.85 (0.47) 0.006
Tobacco
  Ever smoked tobacco 117 (12.3) 50 (10.6) 67 (14.0) 0.114
  Current tobacco smokers 34 (3.6) 19 (4.3) 15 (3.1) 0.454
  Daily tobacco smoker 25 (2.6) 15 (3.2) 10 (2.1) 0.291
  Current smokeless tobacco users 21 (2.2) 15 (3.2) 6 (1.3) 0.041
Alcohol
  Used alcohol in the past 30 days (current drinker) 61 (6.4) 33 (7.0) 28 (5.8) 0.466
  Used alcohol in the past 12 months 97 (10.2) 56 (11.9) 41 (8.5) 0.090
Self-report of previous stroke
  Yes 41 (4.3) 26 (5.5) 15 (3.1) 0.070
  No 909 (95.7) 445 (94.5) 464 (96.9)  
Self-report of previous myocardial infarction
  Yes 211 (22.2) 113 (24.0) 98 (20.5) 0.190
  No 739 (77.8) 358 (76.0) 381 (79.5)  
ART Status
  On ART 913 (95.9) 443 (93.9) 470 (97.9) 0.002
  Pre-ART 39 (4.1) 29 (6.1) 10 (2.1)  
Mean HIV infection duration (SD), months 55.4 (31.7) 49.7 (32.2) 61.0 (30.2) <0.001
Mean ART duration (SD), months 47.7 (29.3) 42.1 (29.0) 53.0 (28.7) <0.001
CD4 count at ART initiation, mean (SD) (n = 632) 217.5 (114.6) 216.9 (121.0) 218.1 (108.2) 0.898
WHO stage at ART initiation
  WHO Stage 1 275 (30.1) 171 (38.6) 104 (22.1) <0.001
  WHO Stage 2 306 (33.5) 139 (31.4) 167 (35.5)  
  WHO Stage 3 270 (29.5) 110 (24.8) 160 (34.0)  
  WHO Stage 4 63 (6.9) 23 (5.2) 40 (8.5)  
Current ART Regimen
  2Aa 107 (11.7) 33 (7.5) 74 (15.7) <0.001
  5Ab 775 (84.9) 397 (89.6) 378 (80.4)  
  Other 31 (3.4) 13 (2.9) 18 (3.8)  
Mean BMI (SD), kg/m2 21.9 (3.4) 21.3 (3.2) 22.6 (3.6) <0.001
BMI categories, n (%)
  Under weight (<18.5 kg/m2) 102 (10.7) 65 (13.8) 37 (7.7) <0.001
  Normal (18.5–25 kg/m2) 682 (71.6) 349 (73.9) 333 (69.4)  
  Over weight (>25–30 kg/m2) 132 (13.9) 45 (9.5) 87 (18.1)  
  Obesity (>30 kg/m2) 36 (3.8) 13 (2.8) 23 (4.8)  
Waist to hip ratio, n (%)
  High 249 (26.9) 122 (27.1) 127 (26.6) 0.867
  Normal 678 (73.1) 328 (72.9) 350 (73.4)  
Proteinuria
Normal (negative or trace) 928 (97.9) 470 (99.6) 458 (97.9) 0.001
  1+ 13 (1.4) 2 (0.4) 11 (2.3)  
  2+ 7 (0.7) 0 7 (1.5)  
  1. SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index
  2. a2A, generic single tablet formulation of zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine
  3. b5A, generic single tablet formulation of tenofovir, lamivudine, efavirenz