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Table 1 Comparisons in cardiometabolic characteristics in women and men born in Iraq and Sweden participating in the MEDIM study 2010 to 2012

From: BMI and waist circumference cut-offs for corresponding levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant versus a native Swedish population – the MEDIM population based study

Variable Swedish women Iraqi women P Swedish men Iraqi men P
N = 326 N = 493 N = 362 N = 683
Age (years) 49.7 (11.1) 44.3 (8.9) <0.001 48.9 (11.1) 46.0 (9.5) <0.001
Body mass index, (kg/m2) 26.8 (5.1) 29.4 (4.8) <0.001 27.2 (3.9) 28.8 (4.0) <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 88.4 (13.7) 92.0 (10.4) 0.001 97.1 (11.2) 98.4 (10.3) 0.034
Height (cm) 165.9 (7.0) 158.7 (6.1) <0.001 179.2 (6.8) 172.8 (6.5) <0.001
Waist to hip ratio 0.84 (0.1) 0.86 (0.06) <0.001 0.93 (0.1) 0.94 (0.05) 0.270
Waist to height ratio 0.54 (0.08) 0.58 (0.06) <0.001 0.54 (0.06) 0.57 (0.06) <0.001
Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 71 (21.8) 183 (37.1) <0.001 77 (21.3) 228 (33.4) <0.001
Abdominal obesity (waist men ≥ 94 cm; women ≥ 80 cm) 234 (71.8) 433 (87.8) <0.001 222 (61.3) 460 (67.3) 0.064
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 5.5 (0.6) 5.6 (0.7) 0.037 5.7 (1.1) 5.6 (0.8) 0.131
Mean glucose 0, 30, 60, 120 min (mmol/L) 6.8 (1.4) 7.0 (1.4) 0.013 7.0 (1.9) 7.3 (1.9) 0.005
Glucose 120 min (mmol/L) 5.9 (1.8) 6.1 (1.7) 0.108 5.6 (1.8) 5.7 (2.1) 0.406
Fasting insulin (mIE/L) 8.0 (5.0) 10.6 (6.9) <0.001 10.5 (8.5) 12.15 (7.6) 0.001
Mean insulin 0, 30, 60, 120 min (mIE/L) 38.1 (23.9) 50.8 (32.6) <0.001 47.5 (38.7) 62.6 (39.7) <0.001
Serum insulin 120 min (mIE/L) 38.8 (30.6) 52.4 (49.3) <0.001 49.8 (68.4) 61.5 (61.3) 0.005
C-peptide (nmol/l) 0.7 (0.3) 0.8 (0.3) <0.001 0.7 (0.4) 0.9 (0.3) 0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)c 5.3 (1.0) 4.8 (0.9) <0.001 5.3 (1.1) 5.1 (0.9) <0.001
p-LDL (mmol/L)c 3.3 (0.8) 3.1 (0.8) 0.001 3.4 (1.0) 3.4 (0.8) 0.305
p-HDL (mmol/L)c 1.6 (0.4) 1.3 (0.4) <0.001 1.3 (0.4) 1.1 (0.3) <0.001
p-TG (mmol/L)c 1.1 (0.5) 1.3 (0.7) <0.001 1.4 (1.0) 1.7 (1.1) <0.001
Insulin Sensitivity Indexa 111.4 (80.6–168.9) 90.5 (57.2–131.2) <0.001 90.1 (58.4–145. 2) 70.1 (47.3–104.0) <0.001
Disposition Index a,b 15232.4 (8910.1–26758.1) 13277.1 (7436.3–24268.0) 0.111 13495.8 (7741.0–22764.5)) 12324.9 (6721.3–22514.4) 0.114
First-degree family history of diabetes, n (%) 91 (29.8) 263 (53.5) 0.001 87 (24.3) 325 (47.2) 0.001
Hours physically active/week 4.1 (2.5) 1.7 (2.0) <0.001 4.1 (2.4) 2.0 (2.2) <0.001
Smokers, n (%) 79 (25.9) 57 (11.6) <0.001 91 (25.4) 227 (33.0) 0.010
Alcohol consumers, n (%) 232 (76.1) 24 (4.9) <0.001 309 (86.3) 190 (27.6) <0.001
Education level ≤ HS, n (%) 53 (17.4) 161 (32.7) <0.001 70 (19.6) 158 (23.0) 0.173
Economic difficulties ≥ once in the last 12 months, n (%) 50 (16.4) 227 (46.1) <0.001 53 (14.8) 377 (54.8) <0.001
Time since migration, years   16 (11–21)   17 (12–24)
  1. Data is presented in means (standard deviation, SD), numbers (percentages) or for non-normally distributed data medians (interquartile range, IQR). Differences in means between groups were adjusted for age using linear regression models (for continuous variables) while differences in proportions between groups (but for male gender and family history of diabetes) were studied using logistic regression adjusting for age.
  2. All tests were two-sided and a p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant
  3. aData presented as IQR
  4. bDisposition only included cases where the glucose level at 30 min was >4.44 mmol/l and greater than the fasting glucose level [33]
  5. cDifferences adjusted for treatment with medication lowering cholesterol levels (i.e. statins or similar medication)
  6. Abbreviations: Econ diff. Economic difficulties, DI disposition index, HDL high density lipoprotein, Hs-CRP high sensitive C-reactive protein, HS high school, IQR interquartile range, ISI insulin sensitivity index, LDL low density lipoprotein, SD standard deviation, TG triglycerides