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Table 1 Measures for determinants of physical activity and screen time

From: What explains the socioeconomic status gap in activity? Educational differences in determinants of physical activity and screentime

Physical activity    Screen time   
COM-B domain Measure/example items Scale (α) COM-B domain Measure/example items Scale (α)
Capability    Capability   
 Self-monitoring Sniehotta et al., 2005 1–7 (.92)    
 Action planning Sniehotta et al., 2005 1–4 (.96)    
 Coping planning Sniehotta et al., 2005 1–4 (.93)    
 Knowledge of physical activity recommendations How much brisk physical activity do you think is recommended for adolescents aged 15–18? 1–6 Knowledge of screen time recommendations How much screen time - sitting in front of a  computer, watching TV or playing video games do you think is recommended for adolescents aged 1518? 1–6
Opportunity    Opportunity   
 Access to facilities There are good paths for cycling and jogging in my environment.’
I have plenty of good exercising facilities (e.g. sports centres andhalls, gyms, fitness centres) in my neighbourhood.’
There are good public transport and travel connections to exercising facilities.’
I have a lot to do in terms of school, hobbies and friends.’
1–7 (.78) TV, play console and computer in room I have a TV, play console and/or computer in my room.’ 1–7
 Material resources I have enough money to be physically active.’
I dont have the equipment I need for PA.’
1–7 (.42)    
 Injunctive norm My parents would like me to exercise regularlya 1–7 (.75) Injunctive norm My parents would approve of me engaging in screen time more than two hours per day in my free timea 1–7 (.82)
 Descriptive norm Most of my friends exercise regularlya 1–7 (.63) Descriptive norm Most of my friends engage in screen time more than two hours per day on their free timea 1–7 (.67)
 Parental support My parents encourage me to be physically active in my free time.’
I feel that my parents give me choices, options and opportunities to be physically active.’
1–7 (.88) Parents restrict screen time
No screen time rules at home
My parents restrict my screen time.’
There are no rules about the length of screen time in my home.’
1–7
1–7
 PE Autonomy support Hagger et al., (2009) 1–7 (.96)    
Motivation    Motivation   
 Positive outcome expectancy It would put me in a good mooda 1–7 (.87) Positive outcome expectancy I would be informed about what is happening in the worlda 1–7 (.83)
 Negative outcome expectancy It would take take too much time from other important things in my lifea 1–7 (.74) Negative outcome expectancy My neck and upper back muscles would get stiff or sorea 1–7 (.82)
 Instrumental attitude Engaging in MVPA three times per week for at least 30 minutes at a time would be usefuluselessa 1–7 (.92) Instrumental attitude Watching TV, playing console games and using a computer more than 2 hours per day would be a goodbad thinga 1–7 (.93)
 Affective attitude Engaging in MVPA three times per week for at least 30 minutes at a time would feel pleasantunpleasanta 1–7 (.55) Affective attitude Watching TV, playing console games and using a computer more than 2 hours per day would feel pleasantunpleasanta 1–7 (.40)
 Intention I intend to do active sports and/or vigorous exercise, for at least 30 minutes, 3 days per week during my free time, over the next 4 weeksa 1–7 (.95) Intention I intend to watch TV, play console games or spend my time on a computer more than two hours a day on weekdays over the next four weeks/on weekend over the next 4 weeksa 1–7
 PA identity 3 items describing identity from SRHI (Verplanken & Orbell 2003) 1–7 (.66) ST identity 3 items describing identity from SRHI (Verplanken & Orbell 2003) 1–7 (.67)
 Self-efficacy and Perceived behavioural control If I wanted to, I could do active sports and/or vigorous exercise three times per weeka
I feel in complete control over whether I will do active sports and/or vigorous exercise three times a weeka
1–7 (.88) Self-efficacy and Perceived behavioural control If I wanted to, I could watch TV, play console games and spend time on computer more than two hours per day on my free timea
I feel in complete control over whether I will watch TV, play console games or spend time on computer more than two hours per day in my free timea
1–7 (.80)
 Habit strength (automaticity) SRBAI (Gardner et al., 2012) 1–7 (.93) Habit strength (automaticity) SRBAI (Gardner et al., 2012) 1–7 (.92)
  1. aMeasure based on Theory of Planned behavior, Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010 and Francis et al., 2004. The target behaviors were defined in the questionnaire as follows:
  2. PA: ”With physical activity, we mean leisure-time PA that increases your heart rate and makes your breathing get faster. Such PA can be e.g. cycling to school, ball games, running, brisk walking, roller skating, skateboarding, snowboarding, downhill skiing, weight training, aerobics or other group exercise classes, and dancing”
  3. ST: ”With screen time, we mean watching TV, playing console games and spending time on a computer while sitting during leisure time. Spending time on a computer may include e.g. surfing the internet, using social media, chatting with friends via the internet and watching TV and movies and listening to music on the computer. In this survey, time used for homework is not considered screen time”