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Table 2 The distribution of the population across background variables according to the most severe caries stages

From: Are distinctive risk indicators associated with different stages of caries in children? A cross-sectional study

Questionnaire Items Highest caries score (ICDAS)
  Healthy n (%) Initial n (%) Moderate n (%) Extensive n (%) p-value
Maternal nationality
 European Union 217 (59.45) 9 (2.46) 47 (12.88) 92 (25.21)  
 Not European Union 7 (29.17) 1 (4.17) 5 (20.83) 11 (45.83) 0.02
Parental educational level
 Mother
  Compulsory education 86 (57.72) 2 (1.34) 12 (8.05) 49 (32.89)  
  Secondary school 107 (57.53) 5 (2.69) 30 (16.13) 44 (23.65)  
  University 31 (57.41) 3 (5.55) 10 (18.52) 10 (18.52) <0.01
 Father
  Compulsory education 114 (54.55) 3 (1.44) 27 (12.92) 65 (31.09)  
  Secondary school 89 (61.81) 3 (2.08) 22 (15.28) 30 (20.83)  
  University 19 (57.58) 4 (12.12) 3 (9.09) 7 (21.21) <0.01
Maternal occupational status
 Housewife 89 (60.54) 1 (0.69) 15 (10.20) 42 (28.57)  
 Unemployed 24 (50.00) 2 (4.17) 6 (12.50) 16 (33.33)  
 Employed 88 (59.46) 4 (2.70) 27 (18.24) 29 (19.60)  
 Self-employed 24 (53.33) 3 (6.67) 3 (6.67) 15 (33.33) 0.06
Sweetened pacifier at night
 Yes 71 (54.61) 3 (2.31) 11 (8.46) 45 (34.62)  
 No 153 (59.08) 7 (2.70) 41 (15.83) 58 (22.39) 0.03
Lactose-free milk
 Yes 16 (41.03) 1 (2.56) 10 (25.64) 12 (30.77)  
 No 207 (59.65) 9 (2.59) 41 (11.82) 90 (25.94) 0.046
Frequency of toothbrushing
 1/day 37 (51.39) 3 (4.17) 7 (9.72) 25 (34.72)  
 2/day 122 (53.98) 6 (2.65) 35 (15.49) 63 (27.88)  
  > 2/day 65 (71.43) 1 (1.10) 10 (10.99) 15 (16.48) 0.046
  1. The chi-square test was performed, and when a cell had a value less than five, Fisher’s exact test was performed